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A trans person's measured take on the trans sports issue

So first of all this post was inspired by GGExMachina's brief statement on the issue:
For example, it is objectively the case that biological men have a physical advantage over women. Yet if someone points this out and suggests that transgender people shouldn’t be allowed to fight in women’s UFC, or women’s soccer or weightlifting competitions or whatever, suddenly you’re some kind of evil monster. Rather than saying that of course trans people shouldn’t be bullied and that we could perhaps have a trans olympics (like the Paralympics and Special Olympics), we are expected to lie.
I've found that this position is incredibly popular among liberals/left-leaning people, especially here on reddit. It seems like, once or twice a month, like clockwork, a thread stating more or less the same thing on /unpopularopinion or /offmychest will get thousands of upvotes. And while I completely understand the thought process that leads otherwise left-leaning people to come to such conclusions, I feel like the issue has been, broadly speaking, dishonestly presented to the general public by a mixture of bad-faith actors and people who have succumbed to the moral panic. And, as I've seen, there are plenty of people in this subreddit and elsewhere who are itching to be as supportive as they possibly can to the trans community but find themselves becoming very disillusioned by this particular issue. By making this post I hope to present a more nuanced take on the issue, not only in regards to my personal beliefs on what kinds of policies are best to preserve fairness in women's sports but also in regards to shining a light on how this issue is often times dishonestly presented in an attempt to impede the progression of pro-trans sentiments in the cultural zeitgeist.

Sex & Gender

The word "transgender" is an umbrella term that refers to people whose gender identities differ from those typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth. According to the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey, the approximate composition of "the trans community" in the United States is 29% Transgender men (Female-to-Male), 33% Transgender women (Male-to-Female), and 35% non-binary. (The remaining 3% were survey respondents who self-identified as "crossdressers", who were still included in the survey on the grounds of being gender non-conforming)
While non-binary people, as a group, are probably deserving of their own separate post. the focus of this post will be on trans men and trans women. I will also be primarily focusing on transgender people who pursue medical transition with Hormone-Replacement-Therapy, as they are most relevant to the issue of sports. (Mind that while the majority of binary trans people fit into this camp, there is a sizable minority of trans people who do not feel the need to medically transition.)
What do trans people believe about Gender?
The views of transgender people in regards to Gender are actually pretty varied, although the most prominent positions that I've personally seen are best summed up into two different camps:
  1. The "Trans-Medical" camp
Transgender people who fall into this camp usually consider Gender Dysphoria to be the defining factor of what makes somebody trans. The best way I can describe this camp is that they sort of view being transgender akin to being intersex. Only whereas an intersex person would be born with a disorder that affects the body, a trans person is born with a disorder that affects the brain. Trans people in this camp often times put an emphasis on a clinical course for treatment. For example, a person goes to a psychologist, gets diagnosed with gender dysphoria, starts hormone replacement therapy, pursues surgery, then emerges from this process of either cured of the gender dysphoria or, at the very least, treated to the fullest extent of medical intervention. This position is more or less the original position held by trans activists, back in the day when the word "transsexual" was used instead of "transgender". Though many younger trans people, notably YouTuber Blaire White, also hold this position. Under this position, sex and gender are still quite intertwined, but a trans man can still be considered a man, and a trans woman a woman, under the belief that sex/gender doesn't just refer to chromosomal sex and reproductive organs, but also to neurobiology, genitalia, and secondary sex characteristics. So someone who is transgender, according to this view, is born with the physical characteristics of one sex/gender but the neurobiology of another, and will change their physical characteristics, to the fullest extent medically possible, to match the neurobiology and therefore cure the individual of gender dysphoria.
Critics of this position argue that this mentality is problematic due to being inherently exclusive to transgender people who do not pursue medical transition, whom are often times deemed as "transtrenders" by people within this camp. Many people find it additionally problematic because it is also inherently exclusive to poorer trans people, particularly those in developing nations, who may not have access to trans-related medical care. Note that there are plenty of trans people who *do* have access to medical transition, but nevertheless feel as if the trans community shouldn't gatekeep people who cannot afford or do not desire medical transition, thus believing in the latter camp.
  1. The "Gender Identity" camp
I feel like this camp is the one most popularly criticized by people on the right, but is also probably the most mainstream. It is the viewpoint held by many more left-wing trans people, (Note that in the aforementioned 2015 survey, only 1% of trans respondents voted Republican, so trans people are largely a pretty left-wing group, therefore it makes sense that this position would be the most mainstream) but also notably held by American Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, GLAAD, and other mainstream health organizations and activist groups.
While people in this camp still acknowledge that medical transition to treat gender dysphoria can still be a very important aspect of the transgender experience, it's believed that the *defining* experience is simply having a gender identity different from the one they were assigned at birth. "Gender identity" simply being the internal, personal sense of being a man, a woman, or outside the gender binary.
Many people in this camp, though, still often maintain that gender identity is (at least partially) neurobiological, but differ from the first camp in regards to acknowledging that the issue is less black & white than an individual simply having a "male brain" or a "female brain", but rather that the neurological characteristics associated with gender exist on more of a spectrum, thus leaving the door open to gender non-conforming people who do not identify as trans, as well as to non-binary people. This is where the "gender is a spectrum" phrase comes from.
"52 genders" is a popular right-wing meme that makes fun of this viewpoint, however it is important to note that many trans and non-binary people disagree with the idea of quantifying gender identity to such an absurd amount of individual genders, rather more simply maintaining that there are men, women, and a small portion of people in-between, with a few words such as "agender" or "genderqueer" being used to describe specific identities/presentations within this category.
It's also noteworthy that not all people in this camp believe that neurobiology is the be-all-end-all of gender identity, as many believe that the performativity of gender also plays an integral role in one's identity. (That gender identity is a mixture of neurobiology and performativity is a position held by YouTuber Contrapoints)
Trans people and biological sex
So while the aforementioned "Gender Identity" viewpoint has become quite popularized among liberals and leftists, I have noticed a certain rhetorical mentality/assumption become prevalent alongside it, especially among cisgender people who consider themselves trans-allies:
"Sex and Gender are different. A trans woman is a woman who is biologically male. A trans man is a man who is biologically female"
When "Sex" is defined by someone's chromosomes, or the sex organs they were born with, this is correct. However, there is a pretty good reason why the trans community tends to prefer terms like "Assigned Male at Birth" rather than "Biologically Male". This is done not only for the inclusion of people who are both intersex and transgender (For example, someone can be born intersex but assigned male based on the existence of a penis or micropenis), but also due to the aforementioned viewpoint on divergent neurobiology being the cause for gender dysphoria. Those reasons are why the word "Assigned" is used. But the reason why it's "Assigned Male/Female At Birth" instead of just "Assigned Male/Female" is because among the trans community there exists an understanding of the mutability of sexually dimorphic biology that the general population is often ignorant to. For example, often times people (especially older folks) don't even know of the existence of Hormone Replacement Therapy, and simply assume that trans people get a single "sex change operation" that, (for a trans woman) would just entail the removal of the penis and getting breast implants. Therefore they imagine the process to be "medically sculpting a male to look female" instead of a more natural biological process of switching the endocrine system form male to female or vice versa and letting the body change over the course of multiple years. It doesn't help that, for a lot of older trans people (namely Caitlyn Jenner, who is probably the most high profile trans person sadly), the body can be a lot more resistant to change even with hormones so they *do* need to rely on plastic surgery a lot more to get obvious results)
So what sexually dimorphic bodily characteristics can one expect to change from Hormone Replacement Therapy?
(Note that there is a surprising lack of studies done on some of the more intricate changes that HRT can, so I've put a "*" next to the changes that are anecdotal, but still commonly and universally observed enough among trans people [including myself for the MTF stuff] to consider factual. I've also put a "✝" next to the changes that only occur when people transition before or during puberty)
Male to Female:
Female to Male:
For the sake of visual representation, here are a couple of images from /transtimelines to demonstrate these changes in adult transitioners (I've specifically chosen athletic individuals to best demonstrate muscular changes)
https://preview.redd.it/ntw333p9sbty.jpg?width=640&crop=smart&auto=webp&s=5fe779757dfc4a5dc56566ff648d337c59fbe5cb
https://www.reddit.com/transtimelines/comments/dpca0f/3_years_on_vitamin_t/
Additionally, here's a picture of celebrity Kim Petras who transitioned before male puberty, in case you were wondering what "female pubescent skeletal development" looks like in a trans woman:
https://cdn2.thelineofbestfit.com/images/made/images/remote/https_cdn2.thelineofbestfit.com/portraits/kim_petras_burakcingi01_1107_1661_90.jpg

How does this relate to sports?

Often times, when the whole "transgender people in sports" discussion arises, a logical error is made when *all* transgender people are assumed to be "biologically" their birth sex. For example, when talking about trans women participating in female sports, these instances will be referred to as cases of "Biological males competing against females".
As mentioned before, calling a trans woman "biologically male" strictly in regards to chromosomes or sex organs at birth would be correct. However, not only can it be considered derogatory (the word "male" is colloquially a shorthand for "man", after all), but there are many instances where calling a post-HRT transgender person "biologically [sex assigned at birth]" is downright misleading.
For example, hospitals have, given transgender patients improper or erroneous medical care by assuming treatment based on birth sex where treatment based on their current endocrinological sex would have been more adequate.
Acute Clinical Care of Transgender Patients: A Review
Conclusions and relevance: Clinicians should learn how to engage with transgender patients, appreciate that unique anatomy or the use of gender-affirming hormones may affect the prevalence of certain disease (eg, cardiovascular disease, venous thromboembolism, and osteoporosis), and be prepared to manage specific issues, including those related to hormone therapy. Health care facilities should work toward providing inclusive systems of care that correctly identify and integrate information about transgender patients into the electronic health record, account for the unique needs of these patients within the facility, and through education and policy create a welcoming environment for their care.
Some hosptials have taken to labeling the biological sex of transgender patients as "MTF" (for post-HRT trans women) and "FTM" (for post-HRT trans men), which is a much more medically useful identifier compared to their sex assigned at birth.
In regards to the sports discussion, I've seen *multiple threads* where redditors have backed up their opinions on the subject of trans people in sports with studies demonstrating that cis men are, on average, more athletically capable than cis women. Which I personally find to be a pathetic misunderstanding of the entire issue.
Because we're not supposed to be comparing the athletic capabilities of natal males to natal females, here. We're supposed to comparing the athletic capabilities of *post-HRT male-to-females* to natal females. And, if we're going to really have a fact-based discussion on the matter, we need to have separate categories for pre-pubescent and post-pubescent transitioners. Since, as mentioned earlier, the former will likely have different skeletal characteristics compared to the latter.
The current International Olympic Committee (IOC) model for trans participation, and criticisms of said model
(I quoted the specific guidelines from the International Cycling Union, but similar guidelines exist for all Olympic sports)
Elite Competition
At elite competition levels, members may have the opportunity to represent the United States and participate in international competition. They may therefore be subject to the policies and regulations of the International Cycling Union (UCI) and International Olympic Committee (IOC). USA Cycling therefore follows the IOC guidelines on transgender athletes at these elite competition levels. For purposes of this policy, international competition means competition sanctioned by the UCI or competition taking place outside the United States in which USA Cycling’s competition rules do not apply.
The IOC revised its guidelines on transgender athlete participation in 2015, to focus on hormone levels and medical monitoring. The main points of the guidelines are:
Those who transition from female to male are eligible to compete in the male category without restriction. It is the responsibility of athletes to be aware of current WADA/USADA policies and file for appropriate therapeutic use exemptions.
Those who transition from male to female are eligible to compete in the female category under the following conditions:
The athlete has declared that her gender identity is female. The declaration cannot be changed, for sporting purposes, for a minimum of four years.
The athlete must demonstrate that her total testosterone level in serum has been below 10 nmol/L for at least 12 months prior to her first competition (with the requirement for any longer period to be based on a confidential case-by-case evaluation, considering whether or not 12 months is a sufficient length of time to minimize any advantage in women’s competition).
The athlete's total testosterone level in serum must remain below 10 nmol/L throughout the period of desired eligibility to compete in the female category.
Compliance with these conditions may be monitored by random or for-cause testing. In the event of non-compliance, the athlete’s eligibility for female competition will be suspended for 12 months.
Valid criticisms of the IOC model are usually based on the fact that, even though hormone replacement therapy provokes changes to muscle mass, it does *not* shrink the size of someone's skeleton or cardiovascular system. Therefore an adult-transitioned trans woman could, even after losing all levels of male-typical muscle mass, still have an advantage in certain sports if she had an excessively large skeletal frame, and was participating in a sport where such a thing would be advantageous.
Additionally, the guidelines only require that athletes be able to demonstrate having had female hormone levels for 12-24 months, which isn't necessarily long enough to completely lose musculature gained from training on testosterone (anecdotally it can take 2-4 years to completely lose male-typical muscle mass) So the IOC guidelines don't have any safeguard against, for example, a trans woman training with testosterone as the dominant hormone in her body, and then taking hormones for the bare minimum time period and still having some of the advantage left.
Note that, while lower level sports have had (to the glee of right-wing publications sensationalizing the issue) instances of this exact thing happening, in the 16 years since these IOC guidelines were established, not a single transgender individual has won an Olympic medal
Also note that none of the above criticisms of the IOC policy would apply in regards to the participation of pre-pubescent-transitioned trans women. After all, male-pubescent bone structure and cardiovascular size, and male-typical muscle levels, can't possibly exist if you never went through male puberty to begin with.
What could better guidelines entail, to best preserve fairness in female sports while avoiding succumbing to anti-trans moral panic?
In my personal opinion, sports leagues should pick one of the three above options depending on what best fits the nature of the sport and the eliteness of the competition. For example, extremely competitive contact sports might be better off going with the first option, but an aerobic sport such as marathon running would probably be fine with the third option.

How this issue has been misrepresented by The Right

I'll use Joe Rogan as an example of this last thing:
She calls herself a woman but... I tend to disagree. And, uh, she, um... she used to be a man but now she has had, she's a transgender which is (the) official term that means you've gone through it, right? And she wants to be able to fight women in MMA. I say no f***ing way.
I say if you had a dick at one point in time, you also have all the bone structure that comes with having a dick. You have bigger hands, you have bigger shoulder joints. You're a f***ing man. That's a man, OK? You can't have... that's... I don't care if you don't have a dick any more...
If you want to be a woman in the bedroom and you know you want to play house and all of that other s*** and you feel like you have, your body is really a woman's body trapped inside a man's frame and so you got a operation, that's all good in the hood. But you can't fight chicks. Get the f*** out of here. You're out of your mind. You need to fight men, you know? Period. You need to fight men your size because you're a man. You're a man without a dick.
I'm not trying to discriminate against women in any way, shape, or form and I'm a big supporter of women's fighting. I loved watching that Ronda Rousey/Liz Carmouche fight. But those are actual women. Those are actual women. And as strong as Ronda Rousey looks, she's still looks to me like a pretty girl. She's a beautiful girl who happens to be strong. She's a girl! [Fallon Fox] is not a girl, OK? This is a [transgender] woman. It's a totally different specification.
Calling a trans woman a "man", and equating transitioning to merely removal of the dick, and equating trans women's experiences as women as "playing house" and "being a woman in the bedroom". These things are obviously pretty transphobic, and if Rogan had said these things about just any random trans woman his statements would have likely been more widely seen in that light. But when it's someone having an unfair advantage in sports, and the audience is supposed to be angry with you, it's much more socially acceptable thing to say such things. But the problem is, when you say these kinds of things about one trans woman, you're essentially saying those derogatory things about all trans women by extension. It's the equivalent of using an article about a black home invader who murdered a family as an excuse to use a racial slur.
Now, I'm not saying that Rogan necessarily did this on purpose, in fact I'm more inclined to believe that it was done moreso due to ignorance rather than having an actual ideological agenda. But since then, many right wing ideologues who do have an ideological agenda have used this issue as an excuse to voice their opinions on trans people while appearing to be less bigoted. Ie. "I'm not trying to be a bigot or anything and I accept people's rights to live their lives as they see fit, but we NEED to keep men out of women's sports", as a sly way to call trans women "men".
Additionally, doing this allows them to slip in untrue statements about the biology of trans women. I mean, first of all in regards to the statement "You have bigger hands, you have bigger shoulder joints", obviously even in regards to post-pubescent transitioners, not every trans woman is going to have bigger hands and shoulder joints than every cis woman (My hands are actually smaller than my aunt's!). It's just that people who go through male puberty on average tend to have bigger hands and shoulder joints compared to people who go through female puberty. But over-exaggerating the breadth of sexual dimorphism, as if males and females are entirely different species to each-other, helps to paint the idea of transitioning in a more nonsensical light.
I hope this thread has presented this issue in a better light for anyone reading it. Let me know if you have any thoughts/criticisms of my stances or the ways I went about this issue.
submitted by Rosa_Rojacr to samharris [link] [comments]

[Eustacchio Raulli] Simmons is the main reason Philly has a real shot this year

Very long thread from an NBA scout discussing Simmons' value and the way defense in general is played in high leverage games, worth the read imo.
Simmons is the X-factor that could put PHI over the top this year, and it has nothing to do with whether he starts taking 3s.
Let's start by discussing rim protection, which typically is the primary battleground between offense and defense.
Most of the time when discussing rim protection we talk about degree of impact at the rim (lower opp FG% in the paint) or degree of deterrence (lower frequency of FGA in the paint). Behemoths like Gobert and Embiid shine in these areas. 6 of the Top 7 in 3 yr RA-DeFG% are bigs.
From a macro perspective, these are the factors that matters most. Whatever plus-minus variant you prefer, or whichever angle you tend to watch film from, these are the players that will consistently make the highest impact defensive plays (outside the occasional pick-6).
There is a 3rd factor, however, that often goes overlooked. Moreover, it has much greater relative importance in the playoffs than the regular season -- under what circumstances can a defense maintain a measure of rim protection? This is at the core of why versatility matters.
Rudy Gobert makes the greatest degree of impact when protecting the rim of any NBA player. He also provides no rim protection when forced to defend 26 feet from the basket. The goal of the offense, then, is to create situations where he cannot protect the rim.
This isn't easy, and most offenses can't do so consistently within a 24 second shot clock. However, if you remove the subset of bad teams things change. Only the 8 best teams remain in R2 of the playoffs. Within this context sustainability of rim protection grows more important.
As far as I can tell, two key factors influence sustainability of rim protection for a defensive unit:
1) Point of attack defense
2) Rim protection redundancies
Let's discuss each in more detail.
1) Point of attack defense
Questions that are tested for each defensive unit in each matchup:
  • How frequently will the on-ball defender require help?
  • What degree of help is needed?
  • How predictable is the ensuing defensive rotation?
There are many layers to this subject.
First, how many worthwhile angles of attack does the offense have at their disposal? It's not always possible to match up the best POA defender with the ball-handler, so redundancies are needed in this area as well.
Moreover, much of the offensive strategy for each possession involves manipulating the point of attack. Pick-and-rolls, DHOs, etc are all methods of creating an advantage at the point of attack, with the value measured in X time spent to create advantage Y.
The reason teams spend so much time manipulating the point of attack is that most high value shot attempts stem from winning that battle and driving into the paint: driving layups, dump offs to bigs, kick outs to spot-up shooters.
A brief aside about how we think about what constitutes a good shot:
We need to think less about individual shots, and more about the network of shots produced by an action. A pull-up jumper may not be ideal, but if each one opens up two drives it's a good network of shots. So, the battle at the point of attack is very important to the eventual outcome of the possession. The difficulty is in determining how much value to ascribe to individual POA defenders in this regard.
One point that needs to be made:
Unless there is a significant talent gap, most POA defenders will 'lose' on most possessions. What we're really looking for is whether they lose slowly enough for the help rotation to arrive, or if they get burned and give up an easy shot.
Moreover, the results in any individual matchup will be... not quite binary, but certainly polarized. A player either holds up against his assignment, or he doesn't. I'm not certain of this, but my inclination is that it's less of a spectrum than many other facets of basketball.
A good example of this is the 2015 NBA Finals. Despite the injuries to 2/3 of the CLE Big Three, GSW had major problems at the POA early in the series. Barnes, Klay, Liv just weren't strong enough to check LBJ. Dray wasn't fast enough. CLE managed to go up 2-1. What changed?
In short, Andre Iguodala happened. He certainly didn't 'win' at the point of attack. But he did consistently lose more slowly than his teammates. This allowed Dray and Bogut to time their help defense more effectively. This illustrates why POA defense can vary greatly in value. The right defender for LBJ or KD is unlikely to be the right defender for Dame or Kyrie. This can dilute its value over the course of 82 games in +/- metrics. But in a playoff series, having the right guy matters a lot.
This is why versatility is a key characteristic for good POA defenders. Avery Bradley can defend the POA... if that POA is under 6-4, and not too strong (AKA not a playoff initiator). Teams relying on narrow players need guys that can match up with various sizes & speeds.
Bringing this back around to the original subject: Ben Simmons, the single most versatile defender in the league. He can guard almost anyone, which makes it very difficult (or simply sub-optimal) for the offense to shift the POA away from him.
This allows Philly to dictate the terms of the engagement far more than most defenses when they choose to do so. They have the personnel to pit their No. 1 POA defender against the opp No. 1 option, No. 2 vs No. 2, etc. That's rare, valuable, and could swing a postseason matchup.
The specific type(s) of POA defenders that carry the most value in a given year are dictated by the most dangerous offensive threats on contenders that season. In 2020, that's Giannis, LeBron, and Kawhi primarily, then to a lesser extent Luka, Harden, Kemba, Jimmy, Siakam, and... whomever Philly decides to run their offense through when the playoffs start.
The supporting casts matter here, too, of course. But in general how your defense matches up with MIL, LAL, and LAC is what matters most this year. Any other team will have to go through at least two of them to win. For 4 years, this was largely about Curry and LeBron. And for 4 years, there was never a defense that was equipped to handle both Curry and LeBron.
POA defense as a unit has significant value. Typically, that value is divided among many players due to varied angles of attack, skewing toward guard size players. Versatility can concentrate that value somewhat. In the playoffs, wing & forward POA defense matters most
Re: versatility, the key trait is strength for smaller players (e.g. Marcus Smart, Kyle Lowry), and lateral agility for larger players (e.g. Ben Simmons, Paul George)
Ultimately, what matters most in a team vs team matchup is how quickly the offense forces a help rotation, also, 'losing slowly' at the POA produces little value without good help defense around the POA defender. This make it a secondary trait for good team defense, but one that has magnified importance when only good defenses are left
The 2nd key for sustainable rim protection is having rim protection redundancies as a team.
How much of a gap is there between the primary (5) and secondary (4) rim protector in a lineup? Is there any tertiary rim protection provided by 1-3?
The answers to these questions impact how appealing it is for an opposing offense to try and draw the 5 out to the perimeter to defend primary actions. How much value is there drawing Dwight Howard out to the 3 point line knowing that AD will still be lurking in help defense?
On one hand, if you can force the switch a pull-up jumper vs a big does raise the baseline for a HC possession. But that's the catch-22, because pull-ups are typically a baseline rather than a desired endpoint. If that's the entirety of the plan, it rules out higher EV looks. While that higher baseline is nice, it's more valuable used as a tool to create higher EV looks. If the big is afraid of a pull-up, it will open driving lanes.
However, with redundant rim protection, the big can 'sit' on the jumper without worrying much about getting blown by. Think Kevin Love defending Steph Curry in the closing minutes of G7. He never holds up in that situation without knowing that Curry is chasing a 3PA.
That's an extreme example, but it illustrates how redundant rim protection can change the dynamic of that situation and alter the network of shots it can produce. In turn, that alters the amount of effort the offense will put into creating that situation in the first place.
So, then, what types of players create the most value in this regard? Players that provide a measure of rim protection while also being capable of holding up in perimeter defense. Draymond is the ultimate example, but also Giannis, AD, Siakam, Tucker, Isaac, Millsap, etc.
Notice a theme here? Pretty much every elite defense has one of these connecting pieces, a player that overlaps between rim protection and perimeter defense.
Moreover, these players are at the root of every successful form of small-ball. The key isn't going smaller just for the sake of more speed & skill. It's adding that w/o sacrificing rim protection. GSW was so successful because they had Dray, KD, Iggy, and Klay to defend the rim.
Bringing this back around to Ben Simmons & Philly, in addition to being the most versatile POA defender in the league he also provides a (small) measure of secondary rim protection when away from the POA. So do Horford, Tobi, and J-Rich. Also Matisse, if he gets any PS burn.
From a tactical perspective, what this means is that Philly has rim protection that is impactful, deterring, and sustainable. This will make them a tough out for any postseason opponent, regardless of their RS struggles. Joel Embiid will likely make the highest impact defensive plays for Philly in the postseason. Just realize that the multi-faceted skill set of Ben Simmons (and the rest of the supporting cast) is key role in keeping him in a position to make those plays.
Also, generally speaking, this is part of why I value versatile POA defenders like PG or Klay and connecting pieces like Siakam and Giannis more highly than +/- metrics. They help their defenses run at peak efficiency in varied circumstances.
I don't care how much you shut down bad teams in the RS. I care if you can hold up against good teams in the PS. For example, I thought Paul George deserved DPOY last year, with Giannis 2nd, and Gobert 3rd. Maybe this POV is too slanted toward versatility, but it is what it is.
Legend:
  • RS = Regular season
  • PS = Post season
  • POA = Point of Attack
  • EV = Expected Value
  • R2 = Round 2
  • DeFG% = Defensive FG%
  • DHO = Dribble Hand Off
Tweet thread
submitted by kobmug_v2 to nba [link] [comments]

A Comprehensive Guide on Securing Your System, Archives and Documents

A Comprehensive Guide on Securing Your System, Archives and Documents
How can you make your system and documents secure? Today, 256-bit AES encryption is offered by everyone and their dog. However, AES encryption does not mean much (or anything at all) when it comes to the real security of your data. Implementing encryption at the right time and in the right spot is no less important than choosing strong encryption credentials and managing the encryption keys.
While the previous part may sound a bit complicated, it all comes down to much simpler things than choosing the strongest encryption algorithm or selecting the length of the encryption key. If you are a Windows user, it all comes down to choosing the optimal data protection strategy for your particular usage scenario; protecting your storage media and the data you keep on them.

Defining your goals

Before you start considering encrypting your hard drives and files, make sure to define your objectives. What information would you like to protect? What threats do you consider important, less important and quite improbable?

Full-disk encryption part I: protecting your boot device

A reliable system protection is impossible without protecting your boot device. An unencrypted boot device (disk C: on most systems) allows for way too many vectors of attack ranging from hibernation and page file analysis to instant extraction of stored passwords from your Web browser vault. In other words, securing your boot device with BitLocker is an absolutely mandatory preliminary step and the most important security layer.
  • Availability: Windows 10 Professional and higher with TPM2.0, Intel PTT or Group Policy edit; all Windows editions for device encryption in thin and light devices meeting minimum requirements.
    • Note: although Windows 10 Home cannot natively create new BitLocker volumes, it can unlock BitLocker encrypted drives with full read-write access
  • Physical access, hard drive only: strong protection
  • Physical access, entire computer: it’s complicated
  • Other users on the same computer: not applicable
  • Malware/ransomware: not applicable
  • Online attacks: not applicable
  • Usage cases: protect data against theft of computer or hard drive; protect data if hard drives are sold or RMA’d; protect data against physical extraction.
If your computer meets the requirements (namely, the presence of a hardware TPM2.0 module or software-based Intel Platform Trust Technology), enabling BitLocker on your computer can be as easy as opening the Control Panel and launching the BitLocker Drive Encryption applet. Note that not all editions of Windows 10 can use BitLocker protection.
We have a comprehensive article on BitLocker protection in our blog, which is highly recommended. Introduction to BitLocker: Protecting Your System Disk
What caveats are there when it comes to securing data against physical extraction? The thing is, while BitLocker is nearly a 100% effective solution for protecting the bare drive, it might not be as secure if the intruder has access to the entire computer with the hard drive installed. Even if your computer is equipped with a TPM2.0/Intel PTT module, Windows will still unlock the encrypted hard drive if Secure Boot conditions are met. This in turn opens numerous vectors of attack that may allow the intruder to intercept the on-the-fly BitLocker encryption key and decrypt the hard drive. These vectors of attack include:
  1. Making a RAM image of a running computer with BitLocker volume(s) mounted. This can be done via a Thunderbolt attack (Windows, by default, does not disable Thunderbolt DMA access when locked) or a cold boot attack.
  2. Breaking or extracting your Windows logon password (e.g. extracting from your Google account, your smartphone, or from another computer you have logged in and synced your data to).
  3. Obtaining your BitLocker Recovery Key from your Microsoft Account or Active Directory.
Advanced users and system administrators can read the following guide to secure their BitLocker volumes: BitLocker recovery guide

Full-disk encryption part II: protecting external storage devices

BitLocker is good not only for protecting your boot device, but for encrypting data on other volumes, built-in and removable. BitLocker protects external storage devices with BitLocker To Go, an encryption algorithm based on a password. In addition to passwords, external drives encrypted with BitLocker To Go have an option to unlock with a smart card on another computer by using BitLocker Drive Encryption in Control Panel. Finally, users can opt to make their encrypted external devices automatically unlock when connected to their (trusted) computer.
  • Availability:
    • Encrypt external devices: Windows 10 Professional and Enterprise
    • Access BitLocker encrypted devices: although Windows 10 Home cannot natively encrypt drives with BitLocker, it can access BitLocker encrypted drives with full read-write access
  • Physical access, device only: protection as strong as your password
  • Physical access, entire computer: it’s complicated (see previous chapter)
    • Note: if you enabled the option “Unlock automatically on this PC”, then effectively no protection
  • Other users on the same computer: strong protection if offline/not mounted
  • Malware/ransomware: strong protection if offline/not mounted
  • Online attacks: strong protection if offline/not mounted
  • Usage cases: protect data stored on external storage devices such as external drive enclosures, USB flash drives etc.
Unlike system drive encryption, BitLocker To Go does not support multifactor authentication. This means you cannot use TPM protection as an additional form of authentication. You can, however, make BitLocker To Go devices unlock automatically when they are inserted in your (trusted) computer, which carries obvious security implications.

Full-disk encryption part III: using third-party crypto containers

I put it here just for the sake of completeness. If you are considering using a crypto-container such as VeraCrypt or PGP, you probably know what it is good for and how to use it. I’ll just add several things that aren’t immediately obvious when you set up encryption. In fact, the two things are so non-obvious that many coach experts have it backwards. (The right way: Choosing the right hashing algorithm – it’s all about slowness).
  • Availability: VeraCrypt is available on most relevant platforms
  • Physical access, hard drive only: very strong protection unless misconfigured
    • Misconfiguration examples: volume stays mounted when computer sleeps or hibernates; volume stays mounted when computer is locked (matter of security vs. convenience); volume unlocked with security key (e.g. USB flash drive) and no password (if USB flash drive is discovered)
  • Physical access, entire computer:
    • volume not mounted at time of analysis: very strong protection
    • volume mounted: very little protection
  • Other users on the same computer
    • volume not mounted at time of analysis: very strong protection
    • volume mounted: very little protection
  • Malware/ransomware: same as above
  • Online attacks: same as above
  • Usage cases: protect data against theft of computer or hard drive; protect data if hard drives are sold or RMA’d; protect data against physical extraction.
The choice of encryption algorithm (spoiler: use AES)
Crypto containers such as VeraCrypt offer the choice of several (actually, multiple) encryption algorithms that range from the industry-standard AES to some quite exotic algorithms such as Serpent or Kuznyechik. For the paranoiacs among us, VeraCrypt offers stacked encryption (e.g. the Serpent(AES) option). The thing is, the choice of an encryption algorithm does not affect the security of your data (unless you pick an algorithm with known or suspected vulnerabilities; finger pointed to Kuznyechik).
The choice of encryption algorithm does not affect the security of your data. A single round AES-256 encryption will be exactly as secure as Serpent(AES) or Serpent(Twofish(AES)). Moreover, the choice of encryption does not even affect the recovery speed (the speed of brute-force attacks on your password)!
Considering that AES is the only hardware-accelerated encryption algorithm in all reasonably modern processors, choosing any encryption algorithm other than AES-256 will unnecessarily slow down your reads and writes (expect a difference of 2 to 3 orders of magnitude in theoretical RAM-to-RAM encryption speeds) without providing any additional security benefit.
If choosing an encryption algorithm other than AES does not affect security, then what does?
The choice of hashing algorithm
When VeraCrypt encrypts (or decrypts) your data, it is using a binary encryption key to perform symmetric cryptographic operations. This media encryption key (MEK) is stored along with the encrypted data. The Media Encryption Key (MEK) is encrypted with a Key Encryption Key (KEK), which, in turn, is the result of multiple (hundreds of thousands) iterative hash operations performed on the user’s password.
In other words, when you type a password, the crypto container will perform a calculation of a certain hash function, and repeat that a 100,000 times or more (in order to deliberately slow down brute-force attacks).
If you want to make your encrypted volume more secure, you can change one of the two things:
  1. Increase the number of hash iterations
  2. Don’t use defaults
  3. Choose a slower hash function
VeraCrypt allows modifying the number of hash iterations by adjusting the PIM (Personal Iterations Multiplier); here is the how-to. The PIM value controls the number of iterations that is used to derive the encryption key from the password that you type. This value can be specified through the password dialog or in the command line. If you don’t manually specify the PIM value, VeraCrypt will use the default number of iterations, which is bad because (2). For SHA-512 or Whirlpool (the two recommended choices), VeraCrypt defaults to Iterations = 15000 + (PIM x 1000).
Why would you want to change the number of hash iterations? Because an attacker will first try to break your password using the defaults. Most tools used by the attackers to brute-force your password will first run the attack using all-defaults: the default encryption algorithm (AES), hash function (SHA-512) and PIM. Changing the PIM value is an easy way to substantially increase security without making your password more complex. Changing the hashing algorithm from default (SHA-512) to Whirlpool also makes sense in this context.
Which brings us to the choice of a hashing algorithm. VeraCrypt offers the choice of SHA-512 (slow, good choice), Whirlpool (slower, even better choice), SHA-256 (slow, but not as slow as SHA-512, use other hash instead), and Streebog (untested). Choosing the right hashing algorithm – it’s all about slowness has some benchmarks and some good explanations; highly recommended. Selecting Whirlpool makes a lot of sense because a) it is slower than SHA-512 (thus will be significantly slower to attack), and b) it is a non-default selection, which significantly increases the complexity of the attack.

File system encryption: when and how to use EFS

If you read the Wikipedia article about Microsoft Encrypting File System (EFS), you’ll get that EFS has been introduced in NTFS 3.0 in order to provides file system level encryption. The article reads: “The technology enables files to be transparently encrypted to protect confidential data from attackers with physical access to the computer.”
While all of that is interesting, neither statement explains who and, most importantly, why should be using EFS, and what exactly the encrypting file system protects against.
  • Availability: all versions and all editions of Windows 10 (and most older versions of Windows)
  • Physical access, hard drive only: as strong as your Windows account password
  • Physical access, entire computer: same as above
  • Other users on the same computer: effective protection
  • Malware/ransomware: not applicable
  • Online attacks: not applicable
  • Usage cases: protect your documents from other users of your computer; an extra layer of security on BitLocker-protected drives; reasonably strong, very easy and fully transparent document encryption on computers where BitLocker is not supported.
What does EFS protect against, and who should be using it?
The purpose of Encrypting File System is protecting your data from users who share your computer. If you have a PC with several users, and each user has their own Windows login (as opposed to sharing a single Windows account), activating EFS encryption is the easiest way to protect your files from being accessed by those other users.
What is the relation between EFS and BitLocker, and which one should you use?
BitLocker protects your entire system volume. Any user who can log in to your computer will unlock the system volume. If a user has administrative privileges (or can escalate a non-admin account by using an exploit), he or she will also gain access to files and documents stored in other users’ accounts on that computer.
Encrypting File System, on the other hand, only protects selected folders. It won’t, for example, protect your instant messenger databases or encrypt your browsing history. It’s mostly just for documents, pictures and videos you keep in your account. However, EFS will effectively protect those files against other users who can log on to your computer, even if they have administrative privileges.
If an attacker got physical access to the computer, BitLocker is the first line of defence. Relying solely on EFS to secure the PC against attacks with physical access is not the best idea.
How does it all work? It’s actually quite simple. Right-click on a file or folder you’d like to encrypt, select Properties and click the Advanced button in the General tab. In the Advanced Attributes dialog select Encrypt contents to secure data and click OK.

https://preview.redd.it/742u0dpqdjc41.png?width=1019&format=png&auto=webp&s=26dcec93aba51d314531f65c6e68ac12302bc88f
This is it. Windows will now encrypt the selected file or folder with your Windows logon credentials. There are no passwords to type and no encryption keys to save.
There is a certain drawback to using EFS encryption. If you ever forget your Windows password and have to reset it from a separate Administrator account (or your domain administrator resets the password for you), the EFS encryption keys will be lost, and you will be unable to decrypt your data without going through the data recovery process with Elcomsoft Advanced EFS Data Recovery. Note that you must recover your Windows password in order to decrypt the files. However, if you simply change your Windows password by following the normal procedure (typing your old password followed by entering the new one), you will be fine.

Document encryption

Encrypting individual documents is an important part of multi-layer security. Microsoft Office apps can use passwords to encrypt the documents’ content. No one without a password should be able to decrypt the document.
  • Availability: all versions of Microsoft Office
  • Security: depends on the version of Microsoft Office, the file format you’re using to save the files and the strength of your password.
  • Physical access, hard drive only: strong protection (with caveats)
  • Physical access, entire computer: strong protection (with caveats)
  • Other users on the same computer: strong protection (with caveats)
  • Other users on your Local Area Network: strong protection (with caveats)
  • Malware/ransomware: content protection. Malware won’t be able to decrypt your files and read your data. However, malware/ransomware can still encrypt your files, effectively locking you out.
  • Online attacks: content protection. Strong protection against unauthorized data access; no protection against unauthorized deletion
  • Usage cases: protect the content of your documents against anyone who does not know the encryption password.
  • How to: Protect a document with a password
A million dollar question: if you are on a local area network, should you use EFS or document encryption to protect documents against other users on the same LAN? In this case, it’s better to use both. EFS will make it impossible to gain access to encrypted files and folders without knowing your Windows account/domain credentials. Password protection of individual documents will make documents difficult to break even if the attacker knows your logon credentials.
The caveats of document encryption
So what exactly does “strong protection (with caveats)” mean? The thing is, your documents are just as secure as the password you use to protect them. If you re-use a password you already stored in your browser cache or in the keychain, extracting that password and decrypting the documents will be a matter of minutes in many types of attacks.
What if you use a cryptographically strong and truly unique password to encrypt documents? Are these documents secure? The thing is, they will be just as secure as the office app permits them to be. In Microsoft Office encryption evolution: from Office 97 to Office 2019 I discussed the encryption algorithms and protection strength of Microsoft Office apps from the early days to the most current release.
Generally speaking, everything before Office 2000 was insecure (no protection). Office 2000, XP and Office 2003 had very weak encryption that can be usually broken in under a day.
Since Office 2007, Microsoft started taking encryption seriously. Office 2010, 2013, 2016, 2019 brought security to the new level, making encrypted documents very secure.
Okay, so you are using the latest Office and selected a strong password; are we secure now? The thing is, you’ll be just as secure as the document format allows. If you are using the newer DOCX/XLSX format (files with .docx / .xlsx extensions), you’re good. If, however, you are saving your documents in “compatibility” mode, you are sacrificing encryption and make your documents as vulnerable as if they were saved by an Office 2003 app.
Best practices:
  1. Use the latest version of Microsoft Office to save documents. If the latest version is not available, use at least Office 2013 (the newer the better).
  2. Never save documents in “compatibility” mode. Make sure that the files are DOCX/XLSX as opposed to DOC/XLS.
  3. Use a unique, cryptographically strong password to encrypt documents. Remember: if the password is broken once (e.g. pulled from your Google account or recovered from a document you accidentally saved in the “compatible” format), it will be used to break everything else, including documents with strong encryption.
  4. If you email an encrypted document, do use a unique, one-time password for that document, and never send both the document and the password in the same email. In fact, you should never send the password by email since that would allow an attacker who gained access to your email account to decrypt the document. Send the document and the password via separate communication channels (e.g. email / text message, chat or phone call).

Protecting backups and archives

Making regular backups is a common wisdom. Protecting those backups is a wisdom much less common. Once you make a backup, make sure to give it as strong a protection as your boot drive.
  1. Store backups on BitLocker-protected media. Even if your backup tool (e.g. the one built into Windows) does not support encryption, at very least your storage media is protected with full-disk encryption. Note: Windows 10 does support the recovery from BitLocker-protected disks. Just create a bootable install image from Microsoft Web site (use “Create Windows 10 installation media”).
  2. If your backup tool supports encryption, it may be a good idea to encrypt your backups (AND store them on a BitLocker-protected media). Note, however, that a backup tool will probably cache (store) your backup password on your computer to automatically encrypt new and incremental backups. For this reason, make sure to have a truly unique, never reused password for encrypting backups.
Individual folders are frequently backed up using common archive tools such as WinZip, 7Zip or WinRar. All of these tools offer the ability to encrypt archives with a password. While the encryption strength is different among the three formats (ZIP, 7Z and RAR), an up to date version of each tool provides adequate protection if you choose a reasonably complex password (e.g. 8 characters or more, combining small and capital letters with numbers and special characters). To achieve the best level of protection, do keep those archives on BitLocker-protected media.
Note that password recovery tools work significantly faster on ZIP/7Z/RAR compared to attacking BitLocker encryption or Office 2013 (and newer) documents. For this reason, never reuse your password, and make sure that your BitLocker media, your documents and your backups/archives use very different passwords (ideally, not based on the same pattern).
More information:

Cloud security: OneDrive Personal Vault

Microsoft started offering an extra layer of security to all users of its cloud storage service in the form of a Personal Vault. OneDrive Personal Vault helps secure your files both on your computer and in the cloud in the event that someone gains access to your account or your device.
Unlike ransomware protection, Personal Vault is available to all users of Microsoft OneDrive and not just to Office 365 subscribers. Technically speaking, Personal Vault is an area in the OneDrive folder on your computer and in the OneDrive cloud storage that features additional protection. You can only access this protected area after passing a strong authentication. If your Microsoft Account is protected with two-factor authentication, you will have to pass the second step of identity verification in addition to typing your Microsoft Account password.
Once configured, Personal Vault must be manually unlocked every time you need access to secured data. To unlock, you must type in your Microsoft Account password and pass the second authentication step if your account has two-factor authentication. Once you’ve finished accessing the data, Personal Vault will automatically relock after a short period of inactivity. Once locked, any files you were using will also lock and require re-authentication to access.
Setting up Personal Vault only takes a few clicks as outlined in Protect your OneDrive files in Personal Vault.
OneDrive Personal Vault is still new; no independent security analysis has been performed until today. In our view, Personal Vault is worth consideration as an extra security layer for some of the most private but rarely accessed types of data. Examples of such data may include BitLocker escrow keys and binary encryption keys, or the list of passwords some users store in encrypted Excel spreadsheets. I personally keep my two-factor authentication secrets (scanned QR codes to initialize the Authenticator app) in the Vault as well.
  • Physical access: unknown (not yet analyzed)
  • Other users on the same computer: strong protection
  • Malware/ransomware: strong protection (unless Personal Vault is unlocked at the time malware is running)
  • Online attacks: as strong as your Microsoft Account security
  • Usage cases: activate to add an extra layer of security for a handful of personal documents, encryption keys, 2fa secrets etc.

Ransomware protection

One of the most important threats not covered by any encryption is the type of malware called ransomware. Ransomware is a type of malware that threatens to either publish the data stolen from the victim or perpetually block access to the victim’s files by encrypting them with a key that is only known to the attacker. The term ‘ransomware’ has emerged from the fact that, on many cases, attackers demand a ransom payment to decrypt data.
Protecting your data against ransomware is a complex topic in itself. However, computer users can choose one or both of the following two defences when it comes to ransomware protection.
Ransomware protection is effective against the following threats.
  • Physical access: no protection
  • Other users on the same computer: no protection
  • Malware/ransomware: effective protection
  • Online attacks: as strong as your cloud account security
  • Usage cases: available automatically to Office 365 subscribers. Available to paid Dropbox users. Automatically protects files stored in OneDrive/Dropbox. Automatic alerts (OneDrive only). Automatic restore (OneDrive only); manual restore (Dropbox).
Use cloud storage with automatic ransomware protection
If you are using Windows 10, most likely you already have a Microsoft Account. The Microsoft Account gives you access to OneDrive, Microsoft’s cloud storage solution. The free tier includes 5 to 15 GB of online storage, while Office 365 subscribers receive the whole terabyte of cloud storage.
Microsoft actively promotes OneDrive Ransomware Protection. OneDrive automatically detects when the files are mass-deleted or mass-edited (such as when ransomware encrypts the entire Documents folder), alerts the user and prompts to restore the known-good snapshot. The File Restore feature is only available to Office 365 subscribers (Home and Personal levels are enough to receive protection).
More information at Ransomware detection and recovering your files.
If you prefer Dropbox to Microsoft OneDrive, Dropbox gets you covered against ransomware attacks, but mostly for higher-level paid tiers. Users of the free Basic tier as well as Plus subscribers can roll back individual encrypted files during the first 30 days after the attack (there will be no warning of mass-deletion of mass-encryption of files coming from the Dropbox app). If you want to roll back the entire Documents folder with Dropbox Rewind, you’ll need to be a paid Plus or Professional tier subscriber.
More information:
Make backup snapshots. Keep backup media offline
Once ransomware is installed on your computer, it will try to encrypt every document that is accessible. The obvious solution is making documents inaccessible by physically disconnecting backup media (such as using 2.5” portable USB drives to back up). In this scenario, you would only connect backup media to your computer when you actually want to make the backup, disconnecting the disk after the backup tool finishes its job. With this approach, even if your computer is attacked by ransomware, your offline backups will not be affected (unless you connected the external drive to the computer at the time the ransomware was installed).
In addition, configure your backup tool to keep snapshots of your data going back as long as permitted by available storage. In our office, an affordable 4TB USB hard drive can keep approximately 30 to 40 full snapshots of the Documents folder; this number becomes significantly larger if you enable incremental backups, with each snapshot saving only
More information:
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Victoria’s Secret: Have the Angels Fallen from Grace? (Interesting article on how the Epstein saga has affected the VS Brand)

Link to article
Link to archive of article: (I recommend archiving every article you come across. I usually use www.archive.is because I find it more user-friendly than The Wayback Machine.)
TEXT OF ARTICLE
Victoria’s Secret: Have the Angels Fallen from Grace?
by Dimitar Ganev | Oct 2, 2019

Victoria’s Secret, the largest lingerie retailer in the US, has been one of the most iconic apparel brands since the 1990s, not least because its sexually charged imaging set the industry’s standard for decades and exerted a strong influence on body image norms. But since 2015, the shares of its parent company L Brands have been dropping as sales keep taking hits from shifting consumer tastes, executive turnovers and emerging competition.
The Victoria’s Secret brand, built on skinny girls and scantily clad lingerie, is now largely perceived as inadequate for a time when consumers’ preferences have moved away from sex appeal and towards empowerment, inclusiveness and comfort. To many, the brand’s traditional marketing strategy, which bets on fashion shows where supermodels walk in stiletto heels and angel wings, seems tone-deaf in the era of #MeToo, which condemns all forms of objectifying women and imposing hard-to-achieve beauty standards.
The Victoria’s Secret Angels, once considered symbols of sexiness, have now started to alienate consumers: a recent study found that 68% of them like the brand “less than they used to” and 60% feel that Victoria’s Secret is “forced” or “fake.” Demand for its products has cooled as up-and-coming rival brands have become more attractive by promoting themselves through unedited images featuring women of more diverse shapes and sizes. The retail giant reported that it will close 53 stores in North America this year, citing a “decline in performance.”
The brand itself admitted that it relied on hypersexualised imaging for far too long and it needs to rethink its identity. At L Brands‘ recent investor day, John Mehas, head of Victoria’s Secret Lingerie, asserted that the company needs to evolve and to reconnect with consumers by launching new products, hiring new executives and using new marketing strategies.
An essential part of the narrative shift would be a more diverse group of models, improving the merchandise, replacing the brand’s marketing chief and “rethinking” its annual Victoria’s Secret fashion show, the only fashion show regularly broadcast around the world, whose ratings keep falling. The brand hinted that network television would no longer be the “right fit” for the event, which has been criticised for being focused on empowering the models who walk in it instead of trying to relate to consumers.
Inclusivity, Diversity and Epstein
Many specialised fashion publications and business outlets embarked on questioning how the once-beloved brand managed to garner such a bad reputation. Analysing the media conversation around Victoria’s Secret in the top-tier English language publications from October 2018 to September 2019, we found that the most often discussed topics were body inclusivity, the company’s ties with Jeffrey Epstein and gender diversity:
The strongest coverage drivers for both the “Body inclusivity” and “LGBTQ+ diversity” topics were the comments which 71-year-old chief marketing officer Ed Razek made in a 2018 interview with Vogue that quickly went viral. Razek, who reportedly has final say over who’s in the televised fashion show, said that he didn’t think Victoria’s Secret‘s fashion event should include transgender or plus-size models because it is supposed to be “a fantasy”.
“Shouldn’t you have transsexuals in the show? No. No, I don’t think we should,” he said. “Well, why not? Because the show is a fantasy. It’s a 42-minute entertainment special. That’s what it is. It is the only one of its kind in the world, and any other fashion brand in the world would take it in a minute, including the competitors that are carping at us. And they carp at us because we’re the leader.”
The remarks prompted a strong backlash from consumers. As with the most severe social media crises, Victoria’s Secret was embroiled in an outrage cascade — outbursts of moral judgment which start to drive the conversation around brands, their products and their corporate messages. In these cases, the virality of moral judgements is facilitated by the fact that most of the content on social media feeds and timelines is sorted according to its likelihood to generate engagement.
The fact that fashion brands in particular face a growing number of crises could be explained by the supposition that fashion items are often taken to be markers of cultural and social identity, and thus are susceptible to be perceived as controversial across social networks. For instance, designers often draw inspiration from other cultures’ traditions, which has recently given rise to accusations of “cultural appropriation”.
Razek later used the company’s Twitter account to issue a formal apology, saying that his remark “came across as insensitive.”
In August 2019, Razek retired just days after the lingerie brand hired its first openly transgender model for its teen label PINK: Brazilian Valentina Sampaio. The hire was generally welcomed by commentators – for instance, Kendall Jenner, daughter of trans icon Caitlyn Jenner, posted “celebrate trans women” to her 98 million Instagram followers.
Meanwhile, media monitoring organisation GLAAD, which deals with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender issues, said Sampaio’s move comes as transgender people are becoming more visible in advertising. Examples of the trend include recent campaigns by Calvin Klein, Gap and H&M, while Playboy’s first transgender Playmate appeared in 2017.
Another strong coverage driver within the ‘Body inclusivity‘ topic was the protest outside Victoria’s Secret‘s store on Oxford Street in London, in which protesters stripped to their underwear and held signs demanding more diversity in fashion. To address such concerns, the latest investor meeting saw Victoria’s Secret deciding it will no longer rely on a small group of supermodels to promote its sexy lingerie, in a bid to use more inclusive marketing.
An example of this new strategy was an Instagram post of model Barbara Palvin, which was celebrated for being more body-inclusive, as social media users perceived Palvin to be curvier than the other supermodels. The post received over 780,000 likes in two days, generating 4.2 times the average number of likes, with users commenting that the model looks “normal” and “healthy”.
But the brand wasn’t that successful in managing another crisis: the widely publicised ties between L Brands founder Les Wexner and financier Jeffrey Epstein, an accused child sex trafficker who committed suicide in jail. Although Epstein didn’t actually work for Victoria’s Secret or L Brands, he had control over Wexner’s finances and personal life, according to reporting by The New York Times, and used his connections with Victoria’s Secret to facilitate his alleged crimes.
L Brands tried to distance itself from Epstein, saying it had cut ties with him nearly 12 years ago and disclosing that it had hired outside counsel to review the case. Wexner said: “Being taken advantage of by someone who was so sick, so cunning, so depraved, is something that I’m embarrassed that I was even close to. But that is in the past.”
In many media reports, the ‘Epstein ties‘ topic was closely related to the ‘Sexual harassment‘ topic, which was dominated by a petition urging Victoria’s Secret to take a stand against sexual harassment and violence. The open letter was addressed to Victoria’s Secret CEO John Mehas and signed by more than 100 models, many of whom have worked with the brand in the past, and also by the Model Alliance, an advocacy organisation in the fashion industry, and the Time’s Up movement against sexual harassment which was founded in response to the Weinstein effect and #MeToo.
The petition cited “numerous allegations of sexual assault, alleged rape, and sex trafficking of models and aspiring models”. Several of the company’s photographers have been accused of misconduct, on top of the links with Jeffrey Epstein. A Victoria’s Secret spokesperson said the firm has been in conversations with the Model Alliance “for some time”: “We are always concerned about the welfare of our models and want to continue to have dialogue with the Model Alliance and others to accomplish meaningful progress in the industry.”
Crisis mode
Ed Razek‘s aforementioned controversial comments regarding transgender and plus-size models made him the most often quoted spokesperson in the discussion around Victoria’s Secret:
Razek’s dominance in the conversation underlined the crisis of perception the brand suffers: his remarks were taken by many media outlets as a sign that the brand is unwilling to adapt to the current sociocultural climate. Models who have previously worked with the brand and who had a relatively large share of voice in the media conversation were quick to criticise him. For example. Karlie Kloss and Lily Aldridge posted a photo reading “Trans and GNC [gender non-conforming] people are not a debate” to their Instagram stories.
Karlie Kloss was one of the most vocal critics: she recently told Vogue that she had decided to terminate her relationship with Victoria’s Secret because the image was not “truly reflective” of who she was and the “kind of message I want to send to young women around the world about what it means to be beautiful.” Model Tess Holliday was harsher, leaving a message to Razek on Twitter following his Vogue interview: “Who needs VS anyway? They never supported plus ladies & now they are trying to dis my trans sisters? Hell nah. Kiss my fat ass, [Victoria’s Secret].”
The majority of media reports on Razek’s retirement announcement cited these remarks as one of the key points in his career and highlighted that he was one of the main figures in the highly sexualised beauty ideal put forth by the brand. The crisis of perception was also emphasised by the fact that L Brands CEO Les Wexner, another major corporate spokesperson in the conversation, was quoted primarily in relation to the Epstein scandal.
However, some of the spokespeople portrayed Victoria’s Secret in a positive light. Adriana Lima, one of the best-known Angels, quit the label after two decades and 18 fashion shows with the brand, sharing the news on Instagram with a heartfelt caption: “Dear Victoria, Thank you for showing me the world, sharing your secrets, and most importantly not just giving me wings but teaching me to fly.”
And while she presented the brand positively, some media publications reminded their readers of a an interview she gave to Grazia in 2011 in which she outlined the physical challenges she went through in order to be in shape, especially after her pregnancy.
Angel Behati Prinsloo tried to defend the Victoria’s Secret Fashion Show against the criticism for its lack of transgender models and diverse body types. In an interview with Elle, she explained what the show stands for: ‘There’s a lot of talk about everything but I think people need to also understand that it’s a show. It’s not saying negative or positive about any body type, it’s ‘this is who they are’.”
In the meantime, Barbara Palvin was named as a Victoria’s Secret Angel after the successful Instagram post which customers perceived to be more body-inclusive. She announced the news to fans also via Instagram and her hire was generally interpreted by the media as a sign that the label is finally starting to listen to its critics.
CEO John Mehas‘ comments about the brand’s marketing shift were met with similar enthusiasm, especially his plans to include messaging that responds to the #MeToo movement. But the most warmly welcomed move was the hire of Valentina Sampaio: although some publications suggested that the brand’s first openly transgender model came too late, most commentators said that the retailer has finally moved in the right direction.
Lingerie wars
While Victoria’s Secret is caught up in a fierce discussion, L Brands‘ other flagship label, Bath & Body Works, a personal-goods retailer, continues to report strong earnings, supporting its struggling parent. Many reports on Victoria’s Secret‘s controversial reputation outlined this development, making Bath & Body Works the most frequently mentioned brand in the conversation:
While L Brands is firmly focused on the Victoria’s Secret turnaround story, Bath & Body Work is perceived as staying relevant with updated stores and new product tests, maintaining a wholesome image as “America’s sweetheart of beauty brands.” Its loyal core consumer base of millennial women is boosted by fan blogs and YouTube accounts dedicated to sharing new products. The brand also plans to ramp up volume by having a digital makeover for the first time in India.
Investors have even started pressuring L Brands to make Bath & Body Works a standalone company which would not be associated with Victoria’s Secret. Hedge fund Barington Capital, whose CEO James A. Mitarotonda was one of the few corporate spokespeople in the conversation, sent a lengthy letter to L Brands CEO Les Wexner arguing for a spinoff.
But after Bath & Body Works posted its first unchanged quarter of store traffic in five years during 2019’s second quarter, Jefferies analyst Randal Konik suggested that the best days for the bath and candle retailer may be over. Konik also said that the teen brand PINK is the next sore spot for L Brands, with sales falling by low double digits in the fourth quarter, as the label is “without fans and rudderless.”
ThirdLove, American Eagle Outfitters and Savage X Fenty were identified as the main competitors which have capitalised on Victoria’s Secret’s reputational struggles. ThirdLove, an online bra startup which was launched in 2013, was perceived as coming head to head with Victoria’s Secret as it focuses on inclusive sizing and marketing, which have helped its annual sales to grow at a rate of 180% for the past four years.
The brand opened its first pop-up store in New York in July 2019, putting itself in direct competition with Victoria’s Secret as the lingerie giant had a store less than a 10 minutes’ walk away. ThirdLove also joined the discussion around Razek’s comments, taking out a full-page ad in The New York Times, in which co-founder and co-CEO Heidi Zak said she was appalled when she read them: “I’ve read and re-read the interview at least 20 times, and each time I read it I’m even angrier. How in 2018 can the CMO of any public company — let alone one that claims to be for women — make such shocking, derogatory statements?”
When asked whether Victoria’s Secret was worried its customers might now be looking for something different, Razek mentioned ThirdLove: “We’re nobody’s ThirdLove,” Razek said. “We’re their first love. And Victoria’s Secret has been women’s first love from the beginning.”
American Eagle Outfitters was also viewed as one of the main companies to break Victoria’s Secret‘s grip on the apparel industry by offering fitting bras and using messaging which pitches inclusiveness and comfort over sex appeal. Its activewear and lingerie brand Aerie has built an image of an “anti-Victoria’s Secret” label with untouched ads featuring models of all shapes and sizes. Kyle Andrew, American Eagle’s CMO, said the company’s success is due to its willingness to experiment and find ways to better listen to its teen customer base.
Rihanna’s Savage X Fenty recent show, streamed on Amazon Prime, has been making headlines everywhere, with commentators saying it was everything that Victoria’s Secret’s annual runway show wishes it could be by featuring models of all shapes, sizes, and ethnic backgrounds, with a clear focus on body inclusivity and acceptance.
Meanwhile, retail corporation Target also tried to capitalise on Victoria’s Secret’s struggles with a strategy similar to ThirdLove, American Eagle Outfitters and Savage X Fenty: it launched a new bra and underwear brand called Auden with a campaign featuring women “in all different shapes and sizes.”
Nike was mentioned as one of the brands which have gotten ahead of the curve with their socially-conscious marketing efforts featuring ex-NFL quarterback Colin Kaepernick, who had participated in racial justice demonstrations during national anthem ceremonies. Fast-fashion brand H&M got involved in the discussion for selling a $199 bra similar to Victoria’s Secret’s $1 million Fantasy Bra as part of its collaboration with Moschino.
Victoria’s Secret‘s reputational woos come at a time when the fashion and apparel industries occupy a central place in the extensively covered #MeToo movement and play a major role in ongoing media discussions around gender and identity. Since such issues naturally polarise consumers, brands which are dealing with products directly related to them are regularly caught up in fierce debates.
The growing importance of the debates around gender in the fashion industry has also been highlighted in the accelerating gender-neutral trend. The latest seasons have seen luxury brands like Gucci, Saint Laurent and Haider Ackerman combining menswear and womenswear runway shows, Others, such as Proenza Schouler and Rodarte, have started showing women’s pre-collections or women’s ready-to-wear during the back-to-back menswear and couture calendar. Meanwhile, fast-fashion labels such as Zara started releasing ungendered collections with models of both sexes dressed in the same clothes.
There are also a growing number of new brands like the Phluid Project, Agender and Rebrand which are built around the concept of non-binary dressing. Beyond fashion houses, the trend has also been recently reinforced by the Council of Fashion Designers of America (CFDA), which added a unisex/non-binary option for New York Fashion Week. Spokespeople for the CFDA explained that this decision came as a response to “a growing number of designers whose collections are not delineated by gender”, which “reflects the cultural momentum.”
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Significant Dualities, in Nature and in Societies

Caution: This article is a long read, and goes in many directions. For the curious mind, it's a lively mindfield to explore and come back again and again. If you prefer poster images, never mind.
Some links occur here mostly because they're interesting, and somehow are part of a duality.
For me, duality means at least two things which are associated somehow, but considered separately are different. We don't need to count above 2, like say 'polyality' because obviously the idea of divergence, or fork, is able to have many 'tines' or separate paths. (See Tuning Fork, below.) We don't have time to cover every possibility, so let's just stick with 2, the most simple case of multiple. (See Rhizome Philosophy for an interesting alternative to this binary association structure. Also the paragraph titled "Association Schemes" in Exploiting the Pyramid.)
We aren't considering pairs of identicals, like dual wheels, two of exactly the same thing, but maybe if there is a small difference, or doubtful meaning between similar things (see dual internal organs under anatomy, below).
Sometimes the association between things is not obvious, in which case we better explain, but most dualities are obviously two tined. Let it go at that.
Tuning Fork, a synchronous dynamic opposition, and also an acoustic device having a dual nature similar to both stringed eg. Piano and other percussion devices (eg. Glockenspiel. See also disambiguation of similar percussion instruments. Tuning forks have the advantage of needing no containment structure because their duality counter-balances the vibrations. All the other devices have a single resonator for each tone.
Dualism (disambiguation index) | wkpd
Fake Word Similarities Dual not confused with duel Dual not confused with do all. (Obvious.)
Duality expressions
flip side
double edged sword
Janus faced
dark side-- bright side
balance equilibrium equation
opposites (word list)
positive-negative (photography))
bilateral symmetry
mirror
images, real vs virtual
paired symbols
yin-yang (principle) yin-yang (history)
Dual Obelisks, ancient Egypt (had different inscriptions on each)
duality as found on tumblr (index)
hypocrisy vs sincerity (philosophical mirror) hypocrisy sincerity sin cere means without wax, not a crackpot idea
Being a Leftist Means never having to Say You’re Sorry title of this essay inspired by a 1970s witticism
dual-process theory of human intelligence
The Balance (disambiguation index) | wkpd, in the physical, a two-sided weight comparator, in the abstract, the equation... possibly the most significant model (3) of reality ever conceived.
Exercising Equations, For Example...
How can things fly, and boats sail upwind?
Bernoulli's two-path model of lift vs Newton's Reaction of air-inertia model of force
Previous link models a lifting surface as a flat-plane and air is deflected in a single direction. Modeling a lifting surface as an arc also works, but no simple reference explaining this is found. So I'm going to do it, very briefly...
Imagine a wing, or sail, is a simple arc, and a small sample of air passing by it is like a stone on a string.. Air has mass, therefore thrusting it around a curve causes a reaction force opposite the center of the curve (aka lift.)
This is an important example because large commercial aircraft wings are complex mechanical devices that change shape depending on speed (scroll down to Flaps). At low speed, the wing simulates an arc, and a sail is made loose to form a larger curve. (Sailing in light airs, reduce tension on halyards, while a tight (more flat) sail configuration is called 'close-hauled').
Binary Thinking, True or False?
What is it? | qra
Binary opposition WARNING: Cultural Marxism, deconstruction
False dilemma, an obstacle to effective negotiation, in which nuances and concessions should be considered, not "take it or leave it" ultimatums
GOOD, BAD, UGLY? 2015 | stnfd
Example: Evolution vs Religious Tradition (Creationism) Purpose or no Purpose, that's the question: Darwinism: Survival without Purpose 2007 Another example from Mark Driscoll
Biblical Christianity requires black-and-white thinking because it is dualistic... Mainstream culture refuses to allow any categories because that would mean making distinctions, which ultimately ends in making value judgments. (which is DISCRIMINATION!) For the record, I am in favor of discrimination, not by race, but by behavior record. Discriminating Evolution from Intelligent Design (the flaws clause) 7 min
Boolean Logic
technical: Bifurcation theory
Binary Options
Nature
Wave–particle duality | wkpd Wave–particle duality (article index) | scidly Light and Sound CGI video, wave-particle duality 25 min
position vs momentum (uncertainty principle)
observer vs object observed (anthropic principle)
Energy-mass duality | wkpd
Mutual-Influence Orbital Oscillation Patterns
Mass Duality vs Time, Effects
Lunacy; tidal lock one side seen, one side hidden
Orbital resonance
Example: Earth-Luna orbit each other; Luna's mass is 0.0123 of earth's. Earth oscillates due to Luna, but radius of orbit is less than Earth's radius, so it's less obvious. See Barycenter. See also NASA, Moon, Luna's orbit, and Libration. https://music.stackexchange.com/questions/24243/what-is-the-difference-between-a-xylophone-a-glockenspiel-marimba-a-xylorimba#24245
Earth Mother Goddess Duo: Gaia/Medea Hypothesis
anatomy
Internal Organ Duals, Why? What are paired organs? (lists) 2018 | qra Symmetry Why do we have two of some organs, but not all? 2014 | stkxchg
Respiratory-Circulatory System Overlap (dual function) Venous Blood forced by thoracic-ambient pressure differential... Heart and lungs are together in the pulmonary cavity, experience simultaneous pressure fluctuations (scroll down to 'Respiratory Pump'), thus fluid influx and egress (air is a fluid). Respiration includes blood circulation, the respiratory and circulatory systems are inextricably linked.
Note that previous articles omit hydrostatic pressure which influences venous circulation (fluid pressure is higher at lower elevations, depending on density; eg. Hg (used in barometers) is 13.534g/cm3, blood is 1.06 g/cm3 (slightly more than water)). When you experience tingling, numbness or swelling due to inactivity, raise the inactive limbs above heart, gravity will help the circulation. Also, dizziness might be due to pressure variations in brain, such as suddenly standing upright after kneeling for awhile. Move more slowly.
Notice that we have only indirect control over heart-rate. We can increase physical activity (especially respiration) voluntarily, then the autonomous nerve system takes care of the rates.
Sex
Origin of Sex
Reproduction, Evolution of
When Did Sex Become Fun? 2016 | spns
A Brief History of Human Sex 2006 | lvsci
Chromosome Duality predicts longevity, reliably Scientists Discover Why women live longer Petrov 8 min
The sex with the reduced sex chromosome dies earlier: a comparison across the tree of life Mar.2020
polarity
electrical
chemical
Polarization (waves) see also Introduction to Polarized Light
magnetic geomagnetic pole
geographic
antipodes
Bi-polar Disorder (mental health)
Dysphoric Mania in Bipolar Disorder (reality IS bipolar, see previous links)
dysphoria is a profound state of unease or a general dissatisfaction with life
split personality, eg. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Euphoria vs Dysphoria
psycho-active stimulants create euphoria 10 BEST LEGAL EUPHORIC HIGH HERBS 2017 See also 4 Most Euphoric Nootropics
What are Nootropics?
What Is Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria?
Society
DUO - Animation Short Film (Fr) 2014 - GOBELINS (for some performance artists, life is a matter of trust) 3.5 min
Dual inheritance theory
Moral Duality
Bi-polar Disorder (social inequality), topic continues under heading "Double Standard of Morality" (scroll down)... A simple two-tier arrangement of mucked-up social "order" which originated in prehistoric times, a result of a conquering group, aka "ruling class" which maintains a dominant position (see Dominance as social construct). The privileged class takes advantage in several ways, one of which allows THEM to commit crimes against US without consequence, but the reverse situation is dealt with harshly.
Assuming there is an ecological crisis, Culture Dysphoria 2015
The historic task of cultural change is to resolve throughout the dominant culture the distortions of rationalist human/nature dualisms that deny our ecological embodiment and membership of the global ecological community.
In Reality, trends toward the Cosmopolitan Cluster are profoundly dissatisfying to conservative individuals. The CC issue is a case of 'the melting pot'. see also Cosmopolitan Cluster
The urban rural divide in the US and other complexities of polarization JUL.17,2019 | ToL
Indivi-DUAL
New idea: 'indivi', I'm going to premise means not divided, a singleton, and dual means two. That leads us to... a person is an undivided twosome, let's assume it means mind-body.
What exactly is the duality of human nature? | qra (trick question, see answer by Mike Brant, also good, Marcos Sheldon Padilla (per mind-body), see next link)
More about Mind-Body
UR2 CGPGrey 5 min
Dual Citizenship
list of, a good place to look for spies Editorial: The problem of dual citizenship 2014... “dual citizenship can present a security issue whether to permit access to classified information which affects recruitment, employment and assignments.” -US State Dept. In some cases, dual citizenship could disqualify an applicant for a sensitive position with the CIA or the State Department. (But not so for Israelis?)... List Israeli Dual Citizens in the US. 114th Congress; Bernie Sanders is on it 2016 | SotN
Binary Competition US vs THEM
Right vs Left (politics)
angels and demons 2 Class Social Hierarchy (Social Order Simplified)
Double Standard of Morality
... is a necessary adjunct to an US vs THEM ethic... because conflating US with THEM gives us cognitive dissonance; (social) equality is oblivion
The Dual Code of Morality
CHINA Strategy; moral dualities
Double Standard of Morality A necessary adjunct to US vs THEM ethic
social equality is oblivion
Bite the Hand that FED you; Ferried by kin-dness from Diaspora to Serendip, then They try to sink that "kin"ship
How the Jews Destroyed Germany | rjn
Jewish Declaration of War on Nazi Germany 1933
How The Jews Destroyed America | rjn
Nazi Jews- “Jew's own worst enemy!” 2007 Makow\rense
Cabalist Bankers Funded Hitler Via Wehrmacht Sep.2019 | svmls
Jewish Origins of Communism
For (Moses) Hess, the cardinal sin of the Judaic people was to abandon their heritage, while the cardinal objective of his Communism was to persuade all other people to abandon theirs…
Communism was the means for achieving Judaic supremacy over the gentiles. The gentiles were fated to be reduced to a faceless, deracinated mass. Capitalism was also capable of producing this effect, through free trade and the unfettered financialization of society, in which the management of money becomes a vast business in itself, and where the highest virtue, after obeisance to Judaism, is profit.
Israel’s New Ideology of Genocide 2018
ve’ahavta (“love your neighbor as yourself”) admonition to Goyim for regarding their Jewish neighbors; as for the Jews themselves, haba le-horgecha, hashkem le-horgo (“he who comes to kill you, rise early and kill him first” as told in 3 Little Pigs))
(wolf) attempts to trick third pig out of his (brick) house by asking to meet him at various places, but he is outwitted each time (3rd pig rises early, does the suggested task, and saves himself from being eaten)
Juice Dualities Juice, and DNA Melting Plot 1
back pages
A take-down of religious "morality" by a "believer"
To Serve the Greater Good, a Moral Philosophy for today++
Survey of Creativity and Destruction 1 Westciv
Garrett Hardin writes: "The essential characteristic of a tribe is that it should follow a double standard of morality -- one kind of behavior for in-group relations, another for out-group." -Wild Taboo "It is a tragic irony that discrimination has produced a species (homo sapiens) that now proposes to abandon the principle responsible for its rise to greatness."
Survey of Creativity and Destruction 8; Survival is Objective #1 in Evolution
Wild Taboo; Hardin/Masters
Competitive Exclusion Principle In the competition for living space and resources between two species (or two groups that occupy the same ecological niche), one will inevitably and inexorably eliminate the other. “In a finite universe – and the organisms of our world know no other – where the total number of organisms of both kinds cannot exceed a certain number… one species will necessarily replace the other species completely if the two species are “complete competitors, i.e., live the same kind of life.”
Historic Walls: Segregation and Security, defensive duo Disapproval of US.MX Border Barrier Design
Musical Duets (entertainment break from difficult study)
2x(Tico) no Fubá - Duo Siqueira Lima - guitar 4 Hands 3 min (includes brief encore) otra vez... 22x (Tico) Zequinha de Abreu arr. N Kossinskaya guitar quartet 4 min Anabel Montesinos & Marco Tamayo | Mozart, Rondo Alla Turca (w/audience) 3 min
Delibes, Lakmé - Duo des fleurs, Sabine Devieilhe & Marianne Crebassa, 3.8m views since Nov2017 4.5 min
Sun Quan The Emperor (Guzheng & Drum Ver.) 9.6m views since 2015 5 min
MUSA - Chandelier(Sia) & Wrecking Ball Mash - Guzheng and Zhongruan 3.3m views since 2015 3.5 min
Irish Senior Citizen Plays London Mall Piano... Then Magic Occurs; spontaneous Irish duet, Galway and Kerry 582k views since Jun.3.2019 (today is Jun.10) 7 min
Rasputin (Boney M) (viol/cello)- The Ayoub Sisters 3.4 min
A.Montesinos & M.Tamayo-Tres canciones de The Beatles-Stagione Internazionale di Chitarra Classica 9.9 min
Fool on the Hill; She's Leaving Home; Penny Lane;
Crazy - Patsy Cline Cover (Allison Young vocals, Josh Turner Guitar) 8.5k views 3.3 min
Dancing, an exercise in aesthetic, social duality
Grace on Ice Gabriella PAPADAKIS, Guillaume CIZERON, 2016 WC's music: Perfect- Ed Sheeran 4.3 min
A family exercise Derek and Julianne, music: "Unsteady" 2 min
Piano Duet, + 3 couples in traditional form Andrea & Matteo Bocelli, music: "Fall On Me" 2.6 min
Memorabilia (skips emotional intro) Jordan​ and​ ​Lindsay contemporary style, music: “Take Me Home” 1.3 min dance episode ends at 3:00
study notes
https://lorenzo-thinkingoutaloud.blogspot.com/2019/
https://simplicable.com/new/anti-competitive-practices
https://duckduckgo.com/?q=reality+dysphoria&atb=v81-4__&ia=web
submitted by acloudrift to todayplusplus [link] [comments]

A Glossary of 40k Game Terms

I figured I would create a general glossary to make it easier for players to learn the "ABCs" of playing 40k in a more cutthroat manner. :) Feel free to suggest any other terms of course.
"1 + 1": An army-building adage where for each infantry unit you take, the transport in question should fulfill a complementary role, thus providing proper threat saturation in your army. As an example, rather than placing Trueborn with Blasters in a Raider (AT infantry in an AT transport), and Trueborn with Splinter Cannons in a Venom (AP infantry in an AP transport), put the Blaster Trueborn in a Venom and the Splinter Cannon Trueborn in the Raider. See also: Duality.
"4 + 2": Another army-building adage that when creating an army, you should take four of a given "mainline" unit, and two of its secondary supporting unit. A notable example of 4 + 2 was Tony Kopach's list from Nova 2010 and Nova 2011, where he included 4 units of 10 Grey Hunters w/ 2 Meltaguns in Rhinos, supported by 2 units of Grey Hunters w/ Flamers in Razorbacks. Another example would be his 2015 Nova list, where he ran 4 units of Avengers in Serpents, and 2 units of Dragons in Serpents.
All-Comers: Aka "Take All Comers" or TAC. A list designed to cover its bases and have reasonable odds of winning regarding of matchup or scenario. All-Comers is the ideal for building a list, especially since 40k does not use sideboards. Contrast with "Tailoring."
Alphastrike: An army playstyle that operates on getting the drop on your opponent first, and inflicting disproportionate casualties in one go to obtain an unstable equilibrium. Alphastrikes tend to be popular in 40k due to its "I Go, You Go" turn structure.
Bandwagon: Aka "Flavor Of The Month", the boogeyman idea that some players instinctually gravitate towards the latest, greatest, shiniest codex, and that shortly after said codex comes out, they have a full tournament-ready pro-painted army at their disposal! In practice, although many armies do get a grace period where players don't know how to handle them, this usually is less the result of the codex being powerful so much as the "haha gotcha" factor of certain rules; sometimes this is aggravated by willful misinterpretations of rules, tailoring, etc.
Beta Strike: An army designed to weather an alpha-strike, then counter-alphastrike. Such builds historically revolved around going second and bringing in a disproportionate amount of Reserves. Such armies are endangered in 8th, due to both players being able to choose when to place Reserves down, combined with Reserves being restricted to specific units.
Blob: A large unit, one that is not necessarily a deathstar or a tarpit.
Bubblewrap: The act of screening your "big guns" with throwaway units, either to act as a roadblock versus melee, or to artificially deny your opponent's ability to Deep Strike. Bubblewrap is a form of defense-in-depth.
Castle: A defensive deployment/battleplan, usually characterized by deploying in full force on one corner of the board with multiple layers of bubblewrap. Castles are meant to negate horde or Deep Strike armies, but can risk losing the Objective Game as they get hemmed in. This term comes from Chess, where Castling was a special move a King and Rook would do.
Chipmunk: In events where sportsmanship is scored, chipmunking is the act of giving your opponent a poor rating in order to torpedo their chances for winning. Chipmunking is generally frowned upon, and many events keep sportsmanship semi-independent of a person's final rating as a result.
Comp: A "scoring handicap" where a tournament/event will assign points to a list to determine how "hard" it is, usually based on what is popular at the time. Thus, it's possible to win every every battle in a comped event yet lose simply because your list is "better." Comp is a divisive topic, alongside whether certain options should be banned or not. More contentious is the idea that such events promote a "race to the bottom", where players seek to choose the hardest possible army that can evade penalties, or play a weak army and hope that the scoring system compensates for losing.
Daisy Chain: The act of stretching a unit's coherency out so that a thin line of models reaches back to your Deployment Zone as the mass remainder keep pushing forward. This term got its name due to the resultant mass of models looking akin to a "flower", or an angry letter T. Daisy-Chaining's first notable use was in 4th edition 40k, when the Ork Codex said that if at least one model from a unit of Orks was within 6" of a Kustom Force Field, the entire unit benefitted from it! Other notable causes for Daisy Chains prior to 8th edition included 4th Edition Fateweaver, 5th edition Tervigons, or a 6th Guard Company Commander with Kurov's Aquila. Sometimes also called a "Conga Line."
Dakka: Firepower. More commonly, firepower that relies on weight of fire/lots of attacks coming from a single source. As an example, a Dakkafex is a Carnifex with two Devourers, which historically could put anywhere from 8 to 12 attacks out at range.
DAVU: Aka "Dire Avenger Vehicle Upgrade." In 5th edition, only Troops or a Transport carrying Troops could score. Since Eldar infantry was generally overcosted and fragile, but their tanks swift and deadly, a common way to build Eldar lists was to take a Wave Serpent or Falcon and stuff 5 Dire Avengers (the cheapest troop option) inside. Made obsolete in 7th edition, since Eldar Jetbikes became far and away the best Troop Choice for Eldar, as well as universal scoring being a thing. Although Wave Serpents remain the best Tank Eldar get in 8th, the term remains obsolete since Serpents can score regardless of any troops inside, and can be taken as standalone vehicles.
Deathstar: The original Deathstar was the penultimate glass cannon, a giant planet-destroying laser mounted on a space station that was surprisingly easy to kill with a single Proton Torpedo. A Deathstar in 40k ironically is the reverse of the Star Wars Definition, a unit that has had extreme amounts of points invested into making it nearly-indestructible, while letting it have a non-insignificant amount of damage. Notable examples of this include Nob Bikers from 5th edition (at least before mass S8 became popular) and the Draigostar, Screamerstars from 6th, and the Barkbarkstar from 7th. Deathstar can refer both to super-buffed units, or any armybuild that revolves around buff-stacking to a certain extreme.
Defense-in-depth: The practice of running your army in multiple lines of defense, to mitigate the effects of a blitzkrieg army. For example, rather than running 3 units of Conscripts side by side, run each unit as a separate line, one after the other, and ideally spaced out to prevent consolidations. Notable real-life examples of defense in depth include the Soviet Army at Kursk, or the Eritreans at Zalambessa.
Duality: The idea that each unit should be capable of at least two battlefield roles without compromising their efficiency. Duality works because overspecialization serves to make target priority easier for your opponent. (See also: "1 + 1").
EQ: Short for "Equivalent", as in possessing similar statlines and armor save. The most common examples are MEQ (Marine Equivalent), GEQ (Guard Equivalent), and TEQ (Terminator Equivalent). This term usually gets used in the context of the ability to kill said targets. As an example, Vespids are supposedly anti-MEQ but overcosted for the task. Personally, I consider thinking of units in this paradigm a potential trap, and the term is fairly endangered in 8th anyway due to a flattened wound chart and non-binary save modifiers.
Flying Circus: Has nothing to do with Monty Python. Back in 4e, the Flying Circus was a notable Eldar build that involved stuffing a lot of Harlequins (the deadliest Eldar melee unit at the time) in Falcon Grav Tanks (a disproportionately hard-to-kill transport), and sending them across to murder your opponent. Such lists lost their competitive viability in 5e due to mass mechanization. The term got revived in 6e to refer to any army that revolves around having way too many Flying Monstrous Creatures; the two notable armies being Chaos Daemons, and Tyranids.
Lynchpin: A critical unit, that if taken out seriously jeopardizes chances of victory. Competitive lists try to ensure redundancy, and avoid having a single lynchpin unit.
MSU: Short for "Multiple Small Units," MSU is based on the idea that "more" units is better than "bigger" or "better" units. In 3rd-7th edition, this was usually based on the fact that in those games, shooting was "one unit shoots at one and only one other unit." In 8th edition, the main advantages are that it makes it harder for your opponent to obtain economy of force, it minimizes the effects of Battleshock, and it makes it easier to cap multiple objectivese or fill out Detachments for maximal Command Points.
Null Deployment: A deployment strategy where you don't start the game with anything on the table, instead having everything come in from Reserves. An interesting tactical curiosity in 5th, pure Null Deployment became extinct in 6th due to a clause that a player with no models on the board at the end of a turn automatically lost. However, the term survives to refer to keeping the overwhelming majority of an army in Reserve.
Pincering: A particular trick a player can use when assaulting a spread-out enemy. The enemy must maintain coherency whenever it moves, including when it attempts to pile in or consolidate into melee. Thus, if you attack a unit spread out in a single line, charging it from both ends of the line would effectively prevent your opponent from piling in to counter-attack you!
Rifleman: A term borrowed from Battletech, the Rifleman is a particular Loyalist-exclusive Dreadnought configuration, where said Dreadnought takes two sets of two Autocannons. In 5e/7e, this meant 4 shots re-rolling to hit. In 8th, this means 8 shots (which probably reroll to hit if there is a nearby Chapter Master). Back in 5th edition, Grey Knights got a notoriously tricked-out variant with Psybolt Ammo (making it effectively +1 Strength), and fans called it...the Psyfleman. (I'm not joking.)
Scalability: The ability for a particular strategy/army build/ability to work as point levels increase. Some options (Defensive/shooting buff auras) scale exponentially for linear investment. Some options (Psychic Powers and Stratagems) do not scale at all, due to restrictions on their use in matched play. A relatively limited number of abilities scale linearly, the most notable example being Imperial Guard orders.
Seal Clubbing: Aka noobslaying. The act of picking on inexperienced players to inflate your own sense of being a capable player. Seal Clubbers tend to yell "gitgud" without taking the time to actually help out. Arguably an anti-competitive attitude, as you're tailoring your opponents.
Shenanigans: Game options that come as a result of wonky game mechanics or unintended rule interactions. Shenanigans range from the comedic yet impractical, to surprisingly dangerous.
Skornergy: Aka "fake synergy." This term actually comes from Hordes, and is an inherent problem in modern game design. Skornergy is what happens when units grant specific buffs or have specific interactions with specific units, resulting in the illusion of synergy (that you, the player, are oh-so-smart to figure out!). This became notable in Hordes Mk 2 because the Skorne (think Hellraiser Cenobyte Samurai with Eldar soulstones and Graeco-Roman nomenclature) had numerous units that granted buffs to each, but ironically had poor synergy with each other in-game. Immortals could move faster if near an Ancestral Guardian, and the Ancestral Guardian got extra actions from collecting souls from friendly fallen warriors. However, said Immortals had no souls (due to being Constructs), and were thus useless for the Guardian in turn, and both units were melee-only infantry-speed units, so taking them together ironically resulted in a poorly-functioning army. Many unit combos in 40k can be accused of having Skornergy.
Slingshooting: The act of attaching Independent Characters to units in order to get said units in Assault faster, or vice-versa. As an example, attaching Abaddon to a unit of Chaos Spawn, so the Spawn can assault a unit, and "pull" Abaddon into melee. Rendered extinct in 8th edition with the removal of Independent Characters.
Solo: A unit that consists of a single model; this usually refers to a single non-HQ unit that is not a Vehicle or Monstrous Creature. As an example, a "solo" Hive Guard or a "solo" Obliterator. This option is endangered in 8th edition, as many units which could historically be taken "solo" now require minimum unit sizes of 3+ models, but you can always run "solos" if you're willing to use Auxiliary detachments...
Superfriends: Although first introduced in 6th edition due to Allies, the term really didn't take off until 7th. Superfriends referred to any build that cherry-picked power units, buffs, psychic powers, etc. from assorted allied codexes in order to make something that was offensive both in-game (Eldar Jetbikes with a Riptide Wing) as well as to the fluff (Space Wolves and Dark Angels combining into a sneaky shadowy Wolfstar). Other than the Taudar example, most Superfriend builds were usually Imperial of some sort or another, and were usually for some Deathstar or another. Arguably endangered for 8th edition, in practice Imperials got off lighter than most other armies.
Table: An extremely victory, where one player completely wipes out the other player, that they have no models remaining on the table.
Tailoring: Building a particular list by knowing you are going to be facing a specific opponent or group of opponents. This is a subjective term, as while some armies may be more common than others, an "All Comers" list should in theory require little adjustment in actual equipment to handle it. List-Tailoring is frowned upon when it's blatantly obvious ("My opponent has no tanks, so my list will take no anti-tank at all"), and arguably does little to improve your own skills!
Tanking: The process of forcing your opponent to waste close combat targets on suboptimal targets. Ever since 5th edition did away with the idea of "Killzones" from 4th edition, the rules have consistently stated that whenever a model is in base-to-base with only one enemy unit, it may only direct attacks against that unit. Armies with extreme variance in saves (Meaning Orks and Tyranids) are the most capable of taking advantage of this rule, and there's little more hilarious than watching a Swarmlord mulch through an enemy mob while the Nob is forced to waste Power Klaw attacks against a unit of Termagants! This ability has arguably become even better in 8th, due to Battleshock being on a "per unit" basis, rather than 5e-7e Combat Resolution affecting all units on the losing combat's side.
Tarpitting: In theory, a "tarpit" was a unit that by itself was ineffectual but dirt-cheap that could mostly be used to "slow down" bigger slower assault units for a turn. In practice, "Tarpitting" seldom worked in 40k. Be it Tank Shock, combat resolution (Ex: No Retreat wounds), Hit and Run, etc, there were usually multiple ways to avoid a Tarpit. Alternately, a Tarpit could just be a particularly annoying Blob. For example, a blob of Brimstone Horrors parked on top of an objective.
Termicide: A particular oddity of Chaos Space Marines from 4th-7th edition (and Space Wolves in 7th) was that they could take Terminators in units of 3 instead of 5, and said Terminators could take Combi-Weapons on the cheap. Such a unit would Deep Strike in, shoot everything, then not care that said weapons were "one-shot" because they were expendable anyway. This is critically endangered (if not competitively extinct) in 8th edition, since Chaos Terminators require a minimum of 5 models instead of 3, said Combi-Weapons got a notable point hike because they're no longer one-shot weapons, and you can't even Deep Strike close enough to get in Melta Range or use Flamers anymore!
Train: Introduced in 5th edition, a "Train" (sometimes also called a Car Park) was an informal formation of Rhino or Chimera-chassis vehicles; rather than advancing side-by-side, they would advance in an echelon or line, vehicles in the back benefitting from the 50% cover rule; since you measured weapon LOS from the turrets of said vehicles, your opponent did not necessarily gain cover in turn. Functionally endangered in 8th if not extinct, since 8e vehicle cover rules state you must also be in cover as well as 50% obscured. A vehicle that is 99% obscured from 2 buildings away but is on a road gets no cover.
X Wing: No, not that X-Wing! Rather, this term refers to an army that treats a normally elite/heavy-duty supporting unit as the core part of the army everything else is built around, where X refers to the central thing in questiom. This term fluff-wise referred to Dark Angels and their previously-unique ability to run all-Terminator armies (Deathwing) or all-Biker armies (Ravenwing), but was since co-opted either based on the unit-type (example: Deffwing armies have a disproportionate amount of Mega-Armor Nobz) or the character allowing for such builds (ex: Loganwing, Draigowing). In 7th, "Wing" could also refer to two infamous Tau formations, the Ghostkeel Wing and the Riptide Wing.
WAAC: "Win At All Costs." Normally used as a snarl word, usually related to "cheese", "beardiness", or any general disparagement of powergaming. Some players counter, saying that people slandering "WAAC" are "Casual At All Costs" or throw down "gitguds" and the whole thing turns into a mudslinging contest. Truth be told, it's not necessarily the list a player brings that determines if they're awful to play against, so much as their attitude and general sportsmanship towards the whole affair.
submitted by MagicJuggler to WarhammerCompetitive [link] [comments]

Glossaryof 40k comp terms

I figured I would create a general glossary to make it easier for players to learn the "ABCs" of playing 40k in a more cutthroat manner. :) Feel free to suggest any other terms of course. "1 + 1": An army-building adage where for each infantry unit you take, the transport in question should fulfill a complementary role, thus providing proper threat saturation in your army. As an example, rather than placing Trueborn with Blasters in a Raider (AT infantry in an AT transport), and Trueborn with Splinter Cannons in a Venom (AP infantry in an AP transport), put the Blaster Trueborn in a Venom and the Splinter Cannon Trueborn in the Raider. See also: Duality. "4 + 2": Another army-building adage that when creating an army, you should take four of a given "mainline" unit, and two of its secondary supporting unit. A notable example of 4 + 2 was Tony Kopach's list from Nova 2010 and Nova 2011, where he included 4 units of 10 Grey Hunters w/ 2 Meltaguns in Rhinos, supported by 2 units of Grey Hunters w/ Flamers in Razorbacks. Another example would be his 2015 Nova list, where he ran 4 units of Avengers in Serpents, and 2 units of Dragons in Serpents. All-Comers: Aka "Take All Comers" or TAC. A list designed to cover its bases and have reasonable odds of winning regarding of matchup or scenario. All-Comers is the ideal for building a list, especially since 40k does not use sideboards. Contrast with "Tailoring." Alphastrike: An army playstyle that operates on getting the drop on your opponent first, and inflicting disproportionate casualties in one go to obtain an unstable equilibrium. Alphastrikes tend to be popular in 40k due to its "I Go, You Go" turn structure. Bandwagon: Aka "Flavor Of The Month", the boogeyman idea that some players instinctually gravitate towards the latest, greatest, shiniest codex, and that shortly after said codex comes out, they have a full tournament-ready pro-painted army at their disposal! In practice, although many armies do get a grace period where players don't know how to handle them, this usually is less the result of the codex being powerful so much as the "haha gotcha" factor of certain rules; sometimes this is aggravated by willful misinterpretations of rules, tailoring, etc. Beta Strike: An army designed to weather an alpha-strike, then counter-alphastrike. Such builds historically revolved around going second and bringing in a disproportionate amount of Reserves. Such armies are endangered in 8th, due to both players being able to choose when to place Reserves down, combined with Reserves being restricted to specific units. Blob: A large unit, one that is not necessarily a deathstar or a tarpit. Bubblewrap: The act of screening your "big guns" with throwaway units, either to act as a roadblock versus melee, or to artificially deny your opponent's ability to Deep Strike. Bubblewrap is a form of defense-in-depth. Castle: A defensive deployment/battleplan, usually characterized by deploying in full force on one corner of the board with multiple layers of bubblewrap. Castles are meant to negate horde or Deep Strike armies, but can risk losing the Objective Game as they get hemmed in. This term comes from Chess, where Castling was a special move a King and Rook would do. Chipmunk: In events where sportsmanship is scored, chipmunking is the act of giving your opponent a poor rating in order to torpedo their chances for winning. Chipmunking is generally frowned upon, and many events keep sportsmanship semi-independent of a person's final rating as a result. Comp: A "scoring handicap" where a tournament/event will assign points to a list to determine how "hard" it is, usually based on what is popular at the time. Thus, it's possible to win every every battle in a comped event yet lose simply because your list is "better." Comp is a divisive topic, alongside whether certain options should be banned or not. More contentious is the idea that such events promote a "race to the bottom", where players seek to choose the hardest possible army that can evade penalties, or play a weak army and hope that the scoring system compensates for losing. Daisy Chain: The act of stretching a unit's coherency out so that a thin line of models reaches back to your Deployment Zone as the mass remainder keep pushing forward. This term got its name due to the resultant mass of models looking akin to a "flower", or an angry letter T. Daisy-Chaining's first notable use was in 4th edition 40k, when the Ork Codex said that if at least one model from a unit of Orks was within 6" of a Kustom Force Field, the entire unit benefitted from it! Other notable causes for Daisy Chains prior to 8th edition included 4th Edition Fateweaver, 5th edition Tervigons, or a 6th Guard Company Commander with Kurov's Aquila. Sometimes also called a "Conga Line." Dakka: Firepower. More commonly, firepower that relies on weight of fire/lots of attacks coming from a single source. As an example, a Dakkafex is a Carnifex with two Devourers, which historically could put anywhere from 8 to 12 attacks out at range. DAVU: Aka "Dire Avenger Vehicle Upgrade." In 5th edition, only Troops or a Transport carrying Troops could score. Since Eldar infantry was generally overcosted and fragile, but their tanks swift and deadly, a common way to build Eldar lists was to take a Wave Serpent or Falcon and stuff 5 Dire Avengers (the cheapest troop option) inside. Made obsolete in 7th edition, since Eldar Jetbikes became far and away the best Troop Choice for Eldar, as well as universal scoring being a thing. Although Wave Serpents remain the best Tank Eldar get in 8th, the term remains obsolete since Serpents can score regardless of any troops inside, and can be taken as standalone vehicles. Deathstar: The original Deathstar was the penultimate glass cannon, a giant planet-destroying laser mounted on a space station that was surprisingly easy to kill with a single Proton Torpedo. A Deathstar in 40k ironically is the reverse of the Star Wars Definition, a unit that has had extreme amounts of points invested into making it nearly-indestructible, while letting it have a non-insignificant amount of damage. Notable examples of this include Nob Bikers from 5th edition (at least before mass S8 became popular) and the Draigostar, Screamerstars from 6th, and the Barkbarkstar from 7th. Deathstar can refer both to super-buffed units, or any armybuild that revolves around buff-stacking to a certain extreme. Defense-in-depth: The practice of running your army in multiple lines of defense, to mitigate the effects of a blitzkrieg army. For example, rather than running 3 units of Conscripts side by side, run each unit as a separate line, one after the other, and ideally spaced out to prevent consolidations. Notable real-life examples of defense in depth include the Soviet Army at Kursk, or the Eritreans at Zalambessa. Duality: The idea that each unit should be capable of at least two battlefield roles without compromising their efficiency. Duality works because overspecialization serves to make target priority easier for your opponent. (See also: "1 + 1"). EQ: Short for "Equivalent", as in possessing similar statlines and armor save. The most common examples are MEQ (Marine Equivalent), GEQ (Guard Equivalent), and TEQ (Terminator Equivalent). This term usually gets used in the context of the ability to kill said targets. As an example, Vespids are supposedly anti-MEQ but overcosted for the task. Personally, I consider thinking of units in this paradigm a potential trap, and the term is fairly endangered in 8th anyway due to a flattened wound chart and non-binary save modifiers. Flying Circus: Has nothing to do with Monty Python. Back in 4e, the Flying Circus was a notable Eldar build that involved stuffing a lot of Harlequins (the deadliest Eldar melee unit at the time) in Falcon Grav Tanks (a disproportionately hard-to-kill transport), and sending them across to murder your opponent. Such lists lost their competitive viability in 5e due to mass mechanization. The term got revived in 6e to refer to any army that revolves around having way too many Flying Monstrous Creatures; the two notable armies being Chaos Daemons, and Tyranids. Lynchpin: A critical unit, that if taken out seriously jeopardizes chances of victory. Competitive lists try to ensure redundancy, and avoid having a single lynchpin unit. MSU: Short for "Multiple Small Units," MSU is based on the idea that "more" units is better than "bigger" or "better" units. In 3rd-7th edition, this was usually based on the fact that in those games, shooting was "one unit shoots at one and only one other unit." In 8th edition, the main advantages are that it makes it harder for your opponent to obtain economy of force, it minimizes the effects of Battleshock, and it makes it easier to cap multiple objectivese or fill out Detachments for maximal Command Points. Null Deployment: A deployment strategy where you don't start the game with anything on the table, instead having everything come in from Reserves. An interesting tactical curiosity in 5th, pure Null Deployment became extinct in 6th due to a clause that a player with no models on the board at the end of a turn automatically lost. However, the term survives to refer to keeping the overwhelming majority of an army in Reserve. Pincering: A particular trick a player can use when assaulting a spread-out enemy. The enemy must maintain coherency whenever it moves, including when it attempts to pile in or consolidate into melee. Thus, if you attack a unit spread out in a single line, charging it from both ends of the line would effectively prevent your opponent from piling in to counter-attack you! Rifleman: A term borrowed from Battletech, the Rifleman is a particular Loyalist-exclusive Dreadnought configuration, where said Dreadnought takes two sets of two Autocannons. In 5e/7e, this meant 4 shots re-rolling to hit. In 8th, this means 8 shots (which probably reroll to hit if there is a nearby Chapter Master). Back in 5th edition, Grey Knights got a notoriously tricked-out variant with Psybolt Ammo (making it effectively +1 Strength), and fans called it...the Psyfleman. (I'm not joking.) Scalability: The ability for a particular strategy/army build/ability to work as point levels increase. Some options (Defensive/shooting buff auras) scale exponentially for linear investment. Some options (Psychic Powers and Stratagems) do not scale at all, due to restrictions on their use in matched play. A relatively limited number of abilities scale linearly, the most notable example being Imperial Guard orders. Seal Clubbing: Aka noobslaying. The act of picking on inexperienced players to inflate your own sense of being a capable player. Seal Clubbers tend to yell "gitgud" without taking the time to actually help out. Arguably an anti-competitive attitude, as you're tailoring your opponents. Shenanigans: Game options that come as a result of wonky game mechanics or unintended rule interactions. Shenanigans range from the comedic yet impractical, to surprisingly dangerous. Skornergy: Aka "fake synergy." This term actually comes from Hordes, and is an inherent problem in modern game design. Skornergy is what happens when units grant specific buffs or have specific interactions with specific units, resulting in the illusion of synergy (that you, the player, are oh-so-smart to figure out!). This became notable in Hordes Mk 2 because the Skorne (think Hellraiser Cenobyte Samurai with Eldar soulstones and Graeco-Roman nomenclature) had numerous units that granted buffs to each, but ironically had poor synergy with each other in-game. Immortals could move faster if near an Ancestral Guardian, and the Ancestral Guardian got extra actions from collecting souls from friendly fallen warriors. However, said Immortals had no souls (due to being Constructs), and were thus useless for the Guardian in turn, and both units were melee-only infantry-speed units, so taking them together ironically resulted in a poorly-functioning army. Many unit combos in 40k can be accused of having Skornergy. Slingshooting: The act of attaching Independent Characters to units in order to get said units in Assault faster, or vice-versa. As an example, attaching Abaddon to a unit of Chaos Spawn, so the Spawn can assault a unit, and "pull" Abaddon into melee. Rendered extinct in 8th edition with the removal of Independent Characters. Solo: A unit that consists of a single model; this usually refers to a single non-HQ unit that is not a Vehicle or Monstrous Creature. As an example, a "solo" Hive Guard or a "solo" Obliterator. This option is endangered in 8th edition, as many units which could historically be taken "solo" now require minimum unit sizes of 3+ models, but you can always run "solos" if you're willing to use Auxiliary detachments... Superfriends: Although first introduced in 6th edition due to Allies, the term really didn't take off until 7th. Superfriends referred to any build that cherry-picked power units, buffs, psychic powers, etc. from assorted allied codexes in order to make something that was offensive both in-game (Eldar Jetbikes with a Riptide Wing) as well as to the fluff (Space Wolves and Dark Angels combining into a sneaky shadowy Wolfstar). Other than the Taudar example, most Superfriend builds were usually Imperial of some sort or another, and were usually for some Deathstar or another. Arguably endangered for 8th edition, in practice Imperials got off lighter than most other armies. Table: An extremely victory, where one player completely wipes out the other player, that they have no models remaining on the table. Tailoring: Building a particular list by knowing you are going to be facing a specific opponent or group of opponents. This is a subjective term, as while some armies may be more common than others, an "All Comers" list should in theory require little adjustment in actual equipment to handle it. List-Tailoring is frowned upon when it's blatantly obvious ("My opponent has no tanks, so my list will take no anti-tank at all"), and arguably does little to improve your own skills! Tanking: The process of forcing your opponent to waste close combat targets on suboptimal targets. Ever since 5th edition did away with the idea of "Killzones" from 4th edition, the rules have consistently stated that whenever a model is in base-to-base with only one enemy unit, it may only direct attacks against that unit. Armies with extreme variance in saves (Meaning Orks and Tyranids) are the most capable of taking advantage of this rule, and there's little more hilarious than watching a Swarmlord mulch through an enemy mob while the Nob is forced to waste Power Klaw attacks against a unit of Termagants! This ability has arguably become even better in 8th, due to Battleshock being on a "per unit" basis, rather than 5e-7e Combat Resolution affecting all units on the losing combat's side. Tarpitting: In theory, a "tarpit" was a unit that by itself was ineffectual but dirt-cheap that could mostly be used to "slow down" bigger slower assault units for a turn. In practice, "Tarpitting" seldom worked in 40k. Be it Tank Shock, combat resolution (Ex: No Retreat wounds), Hit and Run, etc, there were usually multiple ways to avoid a Tarpit. Alternately, a Tarpit could just be a particularly annoying Blob. For example, a blob of Brimstone Horrors parked on top of an objective. Termicide: A particular oddity of Chaos Space Marines from 4th-7th edition (and Space Wolves in 7th) was that they could take Terminators in units of 3 instead of 5, and said Terminators could take Combi-Weapons on the cheap. Such a unit would Deep Strike in, shoot everything, then not care that said weapons were "one-shot" because they were expendable anyway. This is critically endangered (if not competitively extinct) in 8th edition, since Chaos Terminators require a minimum of 5 models instead of 3, said Combi-Weapons got a notable point hike because they're no longer one-shot weapons, and you can't even Deep Strike close enough to get in Melta Range or use Flamers anymore! Train: Introduced in 5th edition, a "Train" (sometimes also called a Car Park) was an informal formation of Rhino or Chimera-chassis vehicles; rather than advancing side-by-side, they would advance in an echelon or line, vehicles in the back benefitting from the 50% cover rule; since you measured weapon LOS from the turrets of said vehicles, your opponent did not necessarily gain cover in turn. Functionally endangered in 8th if not extinct, since 8e vehicle cover rules state you must also be in cover as well as 50% obscured. A vehicle that is 99% obscured from 2 buildings away but is on a road gets no cover. X Wing: No, not that X-Wing! Rather, this term refers to an army that treats a normally elite/heavy-duty supporting unit as the core part of the army everything else is built around, where X refers to the central thing in questiom. This term fluff-wise referred to Dark Angels and their previously-unique ability to run all-Terminator armies (Deathwing) or all-Biker armies (Ravenwing), but was since co-opted either based on the unit-type (example: Deffwing armies have a disproportionate amount of Mega-Armor Nobz) or the character allowing for such builds (ex: Loganwing, Draigowing). In 7th, "Wing" could also refer to two infamous Tau formations, the Ghostkeel Wing and the Riptide Wing. WAAC: "Win At All Costs." Normally used as a snarl word, usually related to "cheese", "beardiness", or any general disparagement of powergaming. Some players counter, saying that people slandering "WAAC" are "Casual At All Costs" or throw down "gitguds" and the whole thing turns into a mudslinging contest. Truth be told, it's not necessarily the list a player brings that determines if they're awful to play against, so much as their attitude and general sportsmanship towards the whole affair.
submitted by azerbajani to WarhammerCompetitive [link] [comments]

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Binary Options Trading Strategies 2015 - YouTube

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